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Title: Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1

Abstract

Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC–MS analysis was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis was carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least twofold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system,more » environmental response factors, protein synthesis, assembly, etc. In conclusion, GC–MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the β-ketoadipate pathway. The study provides an important basis for lignin degradation by bacteria.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4];  [5]
  1. Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China). School of Environment and Safety Engineering; Guangdong Inst. of Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Culture Collection and Application
  2. Jiangsu Univ., Zhenjiang, Jiangsu (China). School of Environment and Safety Engineering
  3. Guangdong Inst. of Microbiology, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China). State Key Lab. of Microbial Culture Collection and Application
  4. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Lab.
  5. Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Bioproducts, Sciences and Engineering Lab., Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1357047
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-124233
Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834; PII: 735
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; EE0006112
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Biotechnology for Biofuels
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1754-6834
Publisher:
BioMed Central
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; Alkaline lignin; Bacillus ligniniphilus L1; GC–MS; Proteomics

Citation Formats

Zhu, Daochen, Zhang, Peipei, Xie, Changxiao, Zhang, Weimin, Sun, Jianzhong, Qian, Wei-Jun, and Yang, Bin. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0735-y.
Zhu, Daochen, Zhang, Peipei, Xie, Changxiao, Zhang, Weimin, Sun, Jianzhong, Qian, Wei-Jun, & Yang, Bin. Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1. United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0735-y.
Zhu, Daochen, Zhang, Peipei, Xie, Changxiao, Zhang, Weimin, Sun, Jianzhong, Qian, Wei-Jun, and Yang, Bin. Tue . "Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1". United States. doi:10.1186/s13068-017-0735-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1357047.
@article{osti_1357047,
title = {Biodegradation of alkaline lignin by Bacillus ligniniphilus L1},
author = {Zhu, Daochen and Zhang, Peipei and Xie, Changxiao and Zhang, Weimin and Sun, Jianzhong and Qian, Wei-Jun and Yang, Bin},
abstractNote = {Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent ability to survive in extreme environments. To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC–MS analysis was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis was carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least twofold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis, assembly, etc. In conclusion, GC–MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the β-ketoadipate pathway. The study provides an important basis for lignin degradation by bacteria.},
doi = {10.1186/s13068-017-0735-y},
journal = {Biotechnology for Biofuels},
number = 1,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Feb 21 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Feb 21 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • Background: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic biopolymer in the biosphere and it comprises up to 30% of plant biomass. Although lignin is the most recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall, still there are microorganisms able to decompose it or degrade it. Fungi are recognized as the most widely used microbes for lignin degradation. However, bacteria have also been known to be able to utilize lignin as a carbon or energy source. Bacillus ligniniphilus L1 was selected in this study due to its capability to utilize alkaline lignin as a single carbon or energy source and its excellent abilitymore » to survive in extreme environments. Results: To investigate the aromatic metabolites of strain L1 decomposing alkaline lignin, GC-MS analyze was performed and fifteen single phenol ring aromatic compounds were identified. The dominant absorption peak included phenylacetic acid, 4-hydroxy-benzoicacid, and vanillic acid with the highest proportion of metabolites resulting in 42%. Comparison proteomic analysis were carried out for further study showed that approximately 1447 kinds of proteins were produced, 141 of which were at least 2-fold up-regulated with alkaline lignin as the single carbon source. The up-regulated proteins contents different categories in the biological functions of protein including lignin degradation, ABC transport system, environmental response factors, protein synthesis and assembly, etc. Conclusions: GC-MS analysis showed that alkaline lignin degradation of strain L1 produced 15 kinds of aromatic compounds. Comparison proteomic data and metabolic analysis showed that to ensure the degradation of lignin and growth of strain L1, multiple aspects of cells metabolism including transporter, environmental response factors, and protein synthesis were enhanced. Based on genome and proteomic analysis, at least four kinds of lignin degradation pathway might be present in strain L1, including a Gentisate pathway, the benzoic acid pathway and the β-ketoadipate pathway. The study provides an important basis for lignin degradation by bacteria.« less
  • Specifically radiolabeled (/sup 14/C-lignin)lignocelluloses and (/sup 14/C-polysaccharide)lignocelluloses were prepared from a variety of marine and freshwater wetland plants including a grass, a sedge, a rush, and a hardwood. These (/sup 14/C)lignocellulose preparations and synthetic (/sup 14/C)lignin were incubated anaerobically with anoxic sediments collected from a salt marsh, a freshwater marsh, and a mangrove swamp. During long-term incubations lasting up to 300 days, the lignin and polysaccharide components of the lignocelluloses were slowly degraded anaerobically to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ and /sup 14/CH/sub 4/. Lignocelluloses derived from herbaceous plants were degraded more rapidly than lignocellulose derived from the hardwood. After 294 days,more » 16.9% of the lignin component and 30.0% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the grass used (Spartina alterniflora) were degraded to gaseous end products. In contrast, after 246 days, only 1.5% of the lignin component and 4.1% of the polysaccharide component of lignocellulose derived from the hardwood used (Rhizophora mangle) were degraded to gaseous end products. Synthetic (/sup 14/C) lignin was degraded anaerobically faster than the lignin component of the hardwood lignocellulose; after 276 days 3.7% of the synthetic lignin was degraded to gaseous end products. Contrary to previous reports, these results demonstrate that lignin and lignified plant tissues are biodegradable in the absence of oxygen. Although lignocelluloses are recalcitrant to anaerobic biodegradation, rates of degradation measured in aquatic sediments are significant and have important implications for the biospheric cycling of carbon from these abundant biopolymers. 31 references.« less
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  • The biodegradation products of 4-chlorobiphenyl were analyzed in an Achromobacter sp. strain and a Bacillus brevis strain. Both strains generated the same metabolites, with 4-chlorobenzoic acid as the major metabolic product. The authors' results corroborate previous observations whereby most bacterial strains degrade the chlorobiphenyls via a major pathway which proceeds by a hydroxylation in position 2,3 and meta-1,2 fission. However, they also detected several metabolites whose structure suggests the existence of other routes for the degradation of chlorinated biphenyls. 21 references.
  • A polymer of ring-labeled (14C) o-methoxyphenol ((14C)guaiacol) was prepared by peroxidase -H2O2-catalyzed oxidation of the 14C-labeled monomeric compound. The ring-labeled (14C) polyguaiacol contained 67.71% carbon, 5.09% hydrogen, 27.49% oxygen, 25.44% methoxyl, and 8.60% phenolic hydroxyl. The polymer had an average molecular weight of between 5,000 and 15,000, as determined by gel chromatography. A schematic representation of the polymer, similiar to previously published structures of polyguaiacols, was devised to meet these and other analytical parameters. The polymer is primarily composed of o-o and p-p-linked guaiacol moieties, with an occasional o-p-biphenyl link and some p-diphenoquinone structures. An approximate molecular formula is (C49O14H31)n,more » where n is greater than or equal to 5.8. Its C6 formula is C6H2.3Ocarbonyl 0.3 (OH)0.7(OCH3)1.0. Polyguaiacol has many of the characteristics of a synthetic lignin. It is easier and less expensive to prepare than standard synthetic lignins (dehydrogenation polymers of coniferyl alcohol). It is degraded ((14C) polyguaiacol to 14CO2) by the lignolytic system of the white-rot fungus Phanaerochaete chrysosporium. It is suggested that (14C) polyguaiacol may be of value as a substrate for lignin biodegradation research. (Refs. 14).« less