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Title: Development of nanoparticle embedded sizing for enhanced structural health monitoring of carbon fiber composites

 [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program
OSTI Identifier:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: SPIE Smart Structures/NDE, Portland, OR, USA, 20170325, 20170329
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Bowland, Christopher C, Wang, Yangyang, and Naskar, Amit K. Development of nanoparticle embedded sizing for enhanced structural health monitoring of carbon fiber composites. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Bowland, Christopher C, Wang, Yangyang, & Naskar, Amit K. Development of nanoparticle embedded sizing for enhanced structural health monitoring of carbon fiber composites. United States.
Bowland, Christopher C, Wang, Yangyang, and Naskar, Amit K. Sun . "Development of nanoparticle embedded sizing for enhanced structural health monitoring of carbon fiber composites". United States. doi:.
title = {Development of nanoparticle embedded sizing for enhanced structural health monitoring of carbon fiber composites},
author = {Bowland, Christopher C and Wang, Yangyang and Naskar, Amit K},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}

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  • This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Embedded Active Fiber Optic Sensing Network for Structural Health Monitoring in Harsh Environments” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology at Virginia Tech. The objective of this project is to develop a first-of-a-kind technology for remote fiber optic generation and detection of acoustic waves for structural health monitoring in harsh environments. During the project period, which is from April 1, 2013 to Septemeber 30, 2016, three different acoustic generation mechanisms were studied in detail for their applications inmore » building a fiber optic acoustic generation unit (AGU), including laser induced plasma breakdown (LIP), Erbium-doped fiber laser absorption, and metal laser absorption. By comparing the performance of the AGUs designed based on these three mechanisms and analyzing the experimental results with simulations, the metal laser absorption method was selected to build a complete fiber optic structure health monitoring (FO-SHM) system for the proposed high temperature multi-parameter structure health monitoring application. Based on the simulation of elastic wave propagation and fiber Bragg grating acoustic pulse detection, an FO-SHM element together with a completed interrogation system were designed and built. This system was first tested on an aluminum piece in the low-temperature range and successfully demonstrated its capability of multi-parameter monitoring and multi-point sensing. In the later stages of the project, the research was focused on improving the surface attachment design and preparing the FO-SHM element for high temperature environment tests. After several upgrades to the surface attachment methods, the FO-SHM element was able to work reliably up to 600oC when attached to P91 pipes, which are the target material of this project. In the final stage of this project, this FO-SHM sensing system was tested in the simulated harsh environment for its multi-parameter monitoring performance and high-temperature survivability.« less
  • Due to its increased use in the automotive and aerospace industries, joining of Carbon Fiber-reinforced Polymer matrix Composites (CFPC) to metals demands enhanced surface preparation and control of surface morphology prior to joining. In this study, surfaces of both composite and aluminum were prepared for joining using a new laser based technique, in which the laser interference power profile was created by splitting the beam and guiding those beams to the sample surface by overlapping each other with defined angles to each other. Results were presented for the overlap shear testing of single-lap joints made with Al 5182 and CFPCmore » specimens whose surfaces prepared by (a) surface abrasion and solvent cleaning; and (b) laser-interference structured surfaces by rastering with a 4 mm laser beam at approximately 3.5 W power. CFPC specimens of T700S carbon fiber, Prepreg T70 epoxy, 4 or 5 ply thick, 0/90o plaques were used. Adhesive DP810 was used to bond Al and CFPC. The bondline was 0.25mm and the bond length was consistent among all joints produced. First, the effect of the laser speed on the joint performance was evaluated by laser-interference structure Al and CFPC surfaces with a beam angle of 3o and laser beam speeds of 3, 5, and 10 mm/s. For this sensitivity study, 3 joint specimens were used per each joint type. Based on the results for minimum, maximum, and mean values for the shear lap strength and maximum load for all the 9 joint types, two joint types were selected for further evaluations. Six additional joint specimens were prepared for these two joint types in order to obtain better statistics and the shear test data was presented for the range, mean, and standard deviation. The results for the single-lap shear tests obtained for six joint specimens, indicate that the shear lap strength, maximum load, and displacement at maximum load for those joints made with laser-interference structured surfaces were increased by approximately 14.8%, 16%, and 100%, respectively over those measured for the baseline joints.« less
  • Based on a comprehensive experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced cement composites incorporating the Ashland's industrial grade carbon fiber reinforced cement composites incorporating the Ashland's inductrial grade carbon fibers (Carboflex), the optimum mix variables and processing techniques were decided. The types and proportions of different mix constituents, the fiber lengths and volume fractions, and the mixing and curing procedures which produce desirable fresh mix properties and superior hardened material performance were decided. A comprehensive experimental data set on the performance characteristics of carbon fiber reinforced cement was also generated. The research was performed in three phases: (1) Establishment of themore » mixing procedure and mix proportions for achieving desirable fresh mix characteristics; (2) Assessment of the trends in the effects of different mix variables on the strength of air cured specimens and further optimization of the mix proportions for achieving superior strength characteristics in addition to the desirable fresh mix workability; and (3) Optimization of the curing condition and full mechanical characterization for carbon fiber reinforced cement composites with some optimum values of fiber length and volume fraction. A comprehensive investigation was performed on the material properties and structural applications of steel fiber reinforced concrete. In studies on the application of steel fiber reinforced concrete a load bearing structural elements, the effects of steel fibers on improving the strength and ductility of concrete footings under bearing pressure, and enhancing bond between deformed bars and concrete were investigated.« less
  • Traditional carbon/carbon (C/C) composites have been primarily based on uni-directional, fabric and multi-directional carbon fibers. The cost of raw materials and processing difficulties have restricted the application scope of C/C composites. In the present investigation short carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composites (SFC/C) were processed by a compression molding technique. Carbon matrix densification was done by liquid impregnation of phenolic and pitch. The structure and properties of SFC/C composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical & electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, electrical conductivity measurements and three point bending tests. The strength and modulus of these composites were found to be approximately 70more » MPa and 20 GPa, respectively. The electrical conductivity values of SFC/C composites were found to be {approximately}10{sup 3} (ohm-cm){sup {minus}1} and the composites were stable in an oxidative atmosphere up to 550{degrees}C. Traditional polymer processing technique, which has the versatility of producing intricate shaped parts, may make it more cost-effective to use SFC/C composites in aerospace, automotive and bio-medical applications.« less
  • In carbon/carbon (C/C) composites-i.e., a composite in which a carbon matrix is reinforced with carbon fiber-it is found that when the matrix is derived from a thermosetting resin, we always observe a distinct, highly graphitizable and well-oriented matrix interphase structure adjacent to the fibers. Qualitatively, the orientation of the interphase is the same as the fiber. It is important to note that thermosetting resins are nongraphitizing when heated in bulk; they form isotropic, amorphous {open_quotes}glassy{close_quotes} carbon. The structure of this interphase becomes more prominent, i.e., more graphitic, as the heat treatment exceeds about 2200{degrees}C. We have postulated that the basismore » for this graphite interphase development is molecular orientation induced in the degradation of the polymer matrix to carbon as a consequence of restraint of pyrolysis shrinkage at the fiber-matrix interface. More specifically, we have hypothesized that the critical factor for development of lamellar graphite (by subsequent high-temperature heat treatment) in this interphase, rather than amorphous glassy carbon, is a state of multiaxial tensile deformation during pyrolysis.« less