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Title: High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO 2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

Abstract

The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO 2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1356888
Report Number(s):
ORNL/TM-2016/291
BT0302000; CEBT002; CRADA NFE-07-01054
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION

Citation Formats

Gluesenkamp, Kyle R., Abdelaziz, Omar, Patel, Viral K., Mandel, Bracha T., and de Almeida, Valmor F.. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1356888.
Gluesenkamp, Kyle R., Abdelaziz, Omar, Patel, Viral K., Mandel, Bracha T., & de Almeida, Valmor F.. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development. United States. doi:10.2172/1356888.
Gluesenkamp, Kyle R., Abdelaziz, Omar, Patel, Viral K., Mandel, Bracha T., and de Almeida, Valmor F.. Mon . "High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development". United States. doi:10.2172/1356888. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356888.
@article{osti_1356888,
title = {High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development},
author = {Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. and Abdelaziz, Omar and Patel, Viral K. and Mandel, Bracha T. and de Almeida, Valmor F.},
abstractNote = {The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.},
doi = {10.2172/1356888},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon May 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service aftermore » the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).« less
  • For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs ofmore » 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.« less
  • The marketplace is now ready for low-capacity burners to minimize the detrimental effects on seasonal efficiency that burner oversizing can bring about and to meet the needs of new energy-efficient homes. This report presents a review and assessment of technology that should be considered in the development of efficient residential oil-burning equipment having capability for reliable, low-capacity operation. The focus in this review is on promising technical approaches having potential application to unconventional types of oil burners and to efficient heat exchangers, including those that operate partially in the mode of condensing moisture from the flue gases to regain themore » latent heat of vaporization. Results show the following concepts are recommended for further investigation in the development of efficient oil-fired heating equipment: modified high-pressure atomizing systems (anti-clogging nozzles, preheaters, return-flow nozzles); alternative methods of atomization (air, ultrasonic, thermal aerosol generators); blue-flame burners; pulse-combustion systems; and condensing-type heat exchangers. Special R and D focus is recommended on aspects of burner performance sensitivity to fuel quality, of pollutant emissions, and of long-term reliability.« less
  • Engineering alloys were analyzed in an effort to identify corrosion resistant materials for the absorption heat pump (AHP). Testing focused on the corrosion behavior of carbon steels and austentic stainless steels Types 304 and 316L. Most of the tests were conducted in lithium bromide solutions at various temperatures under non-flowing or static conditions. Failures due to corrosion in prototype AHP units were investigated as they occurred. A literature review was performed on the corrosion behavior of materials in lithium bromide, ammonia water, and calcium chloride environments. Material recommendations and heat treating procedures are discussed.
  • Two heat-recovery units were retrofitted, one at a time, with one heat pump and one storage-type water heater to produce two integrated heat pump - heat recovery unit - water heater systems. Each system was operated with appropriate measuring devices to determine the effect(s) of using the retrofit heat recovery unit on the performance of the heat pump and water heater. The system was operated with the outdoor unit of the heat pump in an environmental chamber with outdoor temperatures of 75, 85, 95, and 20F. The indoor unit of the heat pump was in an environmental chamber whose indoormore » temperature was set at 80F when the outdoor temperature was 75, 85, 95F, and 70F when the outdoor temperature was set at 20F. The indoor relative humidity was maintained at approximately 50%. The heat recovery unit and water heater were in an environmental chamber set at the basement temperature of 65F with 50% relative humidity.« less