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Title: Reducing statistical uncertainties in simulated organ doses of phantoms immersed in water

Abstract

In this study, methods are addressed to reduce the computational time to compute organ-dose rate coefficients using Monte Carlo techniques. Several variance reduction techniques are compared including the reciprocity method, importance sampling, weight windows and the use of the ADVANTG software package. For low-energy photons, the runtime was reduced by a factor of 10 5 when using the reciprocity method for kerma computation for immersion of a phantom in contaminated water. This is particularly significant since impractically long simulation times are required to achieve reasonable statistical uncertainties in organ dose for low-energy photons in this source medium and geometry. Although the MCNP Monte Carlo code is used in this paper, the reciprocity technique can be used equally well with other Monte Carlo codes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Easterly Scientific, Knoxville, TN (United States)
  3. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO); USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1356884
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 174; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0144-8420
Publisher:
Oxford University Press
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY

Citation Formats

Hiller, Mauritius M., Veinot, Kenneth G., Easterly, Clay E., Hertel, Nolan E., Eckerman, Keith F., and Bellamy, Michael B.. Reducing statistical uncertainties in simulated organ doses of phantoms immersed in water. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncw240.
Hiller, Mauritius M., Veinot, Kenneth G., Easterly, Clay E., Hertel, Nolan E., Eckerman, Keith F., & Bellamy, Michael B.. Reducing statistical uncertainties in simulated organ doses of phantoms immersed in water. United States. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncw240.
Hiller, Mauritius M., Veinot, Kenneth G., Easterly, Clay E., Hertel, Nolan E., Eckerman, Keith F., and Bellamy, Michael B.. Sat . "Reducing statistical uncertainties in simulated organ doses of phantoms immersed in water". United States. doi:10.1093/rpd/ncw240. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356884.
@article{osti_1356884,
title = {Reducing statistical uncertainties in simulated organ doses of phantoms immersed in water},
author = {Hiller, Mauritius M. and Veinot, Kenneth G. and Easterly, Clay E. and Hertel, Nolan E. and Eckerman, Keith F. and Bellamy, Michael B.},
abstractNote = {In this study, methods are addressed to reduce the computational time to compute organ-dose rate coefficients using Monte Carlo techniques. Several variance reduction techniques are compared including the reciprocity method, importance sampling, weight windows and the use of the ADVANTG software package. For low-energy photons, the runtime was reduced by a factor of 105 when using the reciprocity method for kerma computation for immersion of a phantom in contaminated water. This is particularly significant since impractically long simulation times are required to achieve reasonable statistical uncertainties in organ dose for low-energy photons in this source medium and geometry. Although the MCNP Monte Carlo code is used in this paper, the reciprocity technique can be used equally well with other Monte Carlo codes.},
doi = {10.1093/rpd/ncw240},
journal = {Radiation Protection Dosimetry},
number = 4,
volume = 174,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Aug 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016},
month = {Sat Aug 13 00:00:00 EDT 2016}
}

Journal Article:
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  • Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representativemore » CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated male and female stylized phantoms. Results: For fully irradiated organs, average coefficients of variation (COV) ranged from 0.07 to 0.22 across the four male phantoms and from 0.06 to 0.18 across the four female phantoms; for partially irradiated organs, average COV ranged from 0.13 to 0.30 across the four male phantoms and from 0.15 to 0.30 across the four female phantoms. Doses to the testes, breasts, and esophagus showed large variations between phantoms. COV for gender-averaged effective dose and k factor ranged from 0.03 to 0.23 and from 0.06 to 0.30, respectively. COV for male risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.30 and from 0.05 to 0.36, respectively; COV for female risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.49 and from 0.07 to 0.54, respectively. Conclusions: Despite closely matched organ mass, total body weight, and height, large differences in organ dose exist due to variation in organ location, spatial distribution, and dose approximation method. Dose differences for fully irradiated radiosensitive organs were much smaller than those for partially irradiated organs. Weighted dosimetry quantities including effective dose, male risk indices, k factors, and male q factors agreed well across phantoms. The female risk indices and q factors varied considerably across phantoms.« less
  • The time-sequence videotape-analysis methodology, developed [Sulieman et al., Radiology 178, 653-658 (1991)] for use in tissue dose estimations in adult fluoroscopy examinations and utilized [Bolch et al., Med. Phys. 30, 667-680 (2003)] for analog fluoroscopy in newborn patients, has been extended to the study of digital fluoroscopic examinations of the urinary bladder in newborn and infant female patients. Individual frames of the fluoroscopic and radiographic video were analyzed with respect to unique combinations of field size, field center, projection, tube potential, and tube current (mA), and integral tube current (mAs), respectively. The dosimetry study was conducted on five female patientsmore » of ages ranging from four-days to 66 days. For each patient, three different phantoms were utilized: a stylized computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), a tomographic computational phantom of the reference newborn (3.5 kg), and (3) a tomographic computational phantom uniformly rescaled to match patient total-body mass. The latter phantom set circumvented the need for mass-dependent rescaling of recorded technique factors (kVp, mA, mAs, etc.), and thus represented the highest degree of patient specificity in the individual organ dose assessment. Effective dose values for the voiding cystourethrogram examination ranged from 0.6 to 3.2 mSv, with a mean and standard deviation of 1.8{+-}0.9 mSv. The ovary and colon equivalent doses contributed in total {approx}65%-80% of the effective dose in these fluoroscopy studies. Percent differences in the effective dose assessed using the two tomographic phantoms (one fixed at 3.5 kg with rescaled technique factors rescaled and one physically rescaled to individual patient masses with no adjustment of recorded technique factors) ranged for -49% to +15%. Percent differences in effective dose found using the 3.5 kg stylized phantom and the 3.5 kg tomographic phantom, both with patient-specific rescaling of technique factors, ranged from -10% to +17%. These differences are due in part to a reduced ovary dose in the tomographic phantom for right posterior oblique (RPO) views when compared to those seen in the stylized phantom.« less
  • Purpose: To validate the accuracy of a Monte Carlo source model of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 CT scanner using organ doses measured in physical anthropomorphic phantoms. Methods: The x-ray output of the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 multidetector CT scanner was simulated within the Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNPX version 2.6. The resulting source model was able to perform various simulated axial and helical computed tomographic (CT) scans of varying scan parameters, including beam energy, filtration, pitch, and beam collimation. Two custom-built anthropomorphic phantoms were used to take dose measurements on the CT scanner: an adult male and amore » 9-month-old. The adult male is a physical replica of University of Florida reference adult male hybrid computational phantom, while the 9-month-old is a replica of University of Florida Series B 9-month-old voxel computational phantom. Each phantom underwent a series of axial and helical CT scans, during which organ doses were measured using fiber-optic coupled plastic scintillator dosimeters developed at University of Florida. The physical setup was reproduced and simulated in MCNPX using the CT source model and the computational phantoms upon which the anthropomorphic phantoms were constructed. Average organ doses were then calculated based upon these MCNPX results. Results: For all CT scans, good agreement was seen between measured and simulated organ doses. For the adult male, the percent differences were within 16% for axial scans, and within 18% for helical scans. For the 9-month-old, the percent differences were all within 15% for both the axial and helical scans. These results are comparable to previously published validation studies using GE scanners and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms. Conclusions: Overall results of this study show that the Monte Carlo source model can be used to accurately and reliably calculate organ doses for patients undergoing a variety of axial or helical CT examinations on the Siemens SOMATOM Sensation 16 scanner.« less
  • Purpose: ImpactMC (CT Imaging, Erlangen, Germany) is a Monte Carlo (MC) software package that offers a GPU enabled, user definable and validated method for 3D dose distribution calculations for radiography and Computed Tomography (CT). ImpactMC, in and of itself, offers limited capabilities to perform batch simulations. The aim of this work was to develop a framework for the batch simulation of absorbed organ dose distributions from CT scans of computational voxel phantoms. Methods: The ICRP 110 adult Reference Male and Reference Female computational voxel phantoms were formatted into compatible input volumes for MC simulations. A Matlab (The MathWorks Inc., Natick,more » MA) script was written to loop through a user defined set of simulation parameters and 1) generate input files required for the simulation, 2) start the MC simulation, 3) segment the absorbed dose for organs in the simulated dose volume and 4) transfer the organ doses to a database. A demonstration of the framework is made where the glandular breast dose to the adult Reference Female phantom, for a typical Chest CT examination, is investigated. Results: A batch of 48 contiguous simulations was performed with variations in the total collimation and spiral pitch. The demonstration of the framework showed that the glandular dose to the right and left breast will vary depending on the start angle of rotation, total collimation and spiral pitch. Conclusion: The developed framework provides a robust and efficient approach to performing a large number of user defined MC simulations with computational voxel phantoms in CT (minimal user interaction). The resulting organ doses from each simulation can be accessed through a database which greatly increases the ease of analyzing the resulting organ doses. The framework developed in this work provides a valuable resource when investigating different dose optimization strategies in CT.« less
  • Purpose: Current practice of using 3D margins in radiotherapy with high-energy photon beams provides larger-than-required target coverage. According to the photon depth-dose curve, target displacements in beam direction result in minute changes in dose delivered. We exploit this behavior by generating margins on a per-beam basis which simultaneously account for the relative distance of the target and adjacent organs-at-risk (OARs). Methods: For each beam, we consider only geometrical uncertainties of the target location perpendicular to beam direction. By weighting voxels based on its proximity to an OAR, we generate adaptive margins that yield similar overall target coverage probability and reducedmore » OAR dose-burden, at the expense of increased target volume. Three IMRT plans, using 3D margins and 2D per-beam margins with and without adaptation, were generated for five prostate patients with a prescription dose Dpres of 78Gy in 2Gy fractions using identical optimisation constraints. Systematic uncertainties of 1.1, 1.1, 1.5mm in the LR, SI, and AP directions, respectively, and 0.9, 1.1, 1.0mm for the random uncertainties, were assumed. A verification tool was employed to simulate the effects of systematic and random errors using a population size of 50,000. The fraction of the population that satisfies or violates a given DVH constraint was used for comparison. Results: We observe similar target coverage across all plans, with at least 97.5% of the population meeting the D98%>95%Dpres constraint. When looking at the probability of the population receiving D5<70Gy for the rectum, we observed median absolute increases of 23.61% (range, 2.15%–27.85%) and 6.97% (range, 0.65%–17.76%) using per-beam margins with and without adaptation, respectively, relative to using 3D margins. Conclusion: We observed sufficient and similar target coverage using per-beam margins. By adapting each per-beam margin away from an OAR, we can further reduce OAR dose without significantly lowering target coverage probability by irradiating more less-important tissues. This work is supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C33589/A19908. Research at ICR is also supported by Cancer Research UK under Programme C33589/A19727 and NHS funding to the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at RMH and ICR.« less