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Title: A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery

Abstract

Growing global demand of safe and low-cost energy storage technology triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. This work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1356486
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-123660
Journal ID: ISSN 2211-2855; TE1400000
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Nano Energy; Journal Volume: 34
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Li, Yifei, An, Qinyou, Cheng, Yingwen, Liang, Yanliang, Ren, Yang, Sun, Cheng-Jun, Dong, Hui, Tang, Zhongjia, Li, Guosheng, and Yao, Yan. A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.012.
Li, Yifei, An, Qinyou, Cheng, Yingwen, Liang, Yanliang, Ren, Yang, Sun, Cheng-Jun, Dong, Hui, Tang, Zhongjia, Li, Guosheng, & Yao, Yan. A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.012.
Li, Yifei, An, Qinyou, Cheng, Yingwen, Liang, Yanliang, Ren, Yang, Sun, Cheng-Jun, Dong, Hui, Tang, Zhongjia, Li, Guosheng, and Yao, Yan. Sat . "A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.012.
@article{osti_1356486,
title = {A high-voltage rechargeable magnesium-sodium hybrid battery},
author = {Li, Yifei and An, Qinyou and Cheng, Yingwen and Liang, Yanliang and Ren, Yang and Sun, Cheng-Jun and Dong, Hui and Tang, Zhongjia and Li, Guosheng and Yao, Yan},
abstractNote = {Growing global demand of safe and low-cost energy storage technology triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. Here we report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-based X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. This work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.02.012},
journal = {Nano Energy},
number = ,
volume = 34,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • There is a growing global demand for safe and low-cost energy storage technology which triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. We report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10 C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-basedmore » X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. Our work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.« less
  • There is a growing global demand for safe and low-cost energy storage technology which triggers strong interests in novel battery concepts beyond state-of-art Li-ion batteries. We report a high-voltage rechargeable Mg–Na hybrid battery featuring dendrite-free deposition of Mg anode and Na-intercalation cathode as a low-cost and safe alternative to Li-ion batteries for large-scale energy storage. A prototype device using a Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode, a Mg anode, and a Mg–Na dual salt electrolyte exhibits the highest voltage (2.60 V vs. Mg) and best rate performance (86% capacity retention at 10 C rate) among reported hybrid batteries. Synchrotron radiation-basedmore » X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), atomic-pair distribution function (PDF), and high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) studies reveal the chemical environment and structural change of Na 3V 2(PO 4) 3 cathode during the Na ion insertion/deinsertion process. XANES study shows a clear reversible shift of vanadium K-edge and HRXRD and PDF studies reveal a reversible two-phase transformation and V–O bond length change during cycling. The energy density of the hybrid cell could be further improved by developing electrolytes with a higher salt concentration and wider electrochemical window. Our work represents a significant step forward for practical safe and low-cost hybrid batteries.« less
  • We report a high performance magnesium-sodium hybrid battery utilizing a magnesium-sodium dual-salt electrolyte, a magnesium anode, and a Berlin green cathode. The cell delivers an average discharge voltage of 2.2 V and a reversible capacity of 143 mAh g -1. We also demonstrate the cell with an energy density of 135 Wh kg -1 and a high power density of up to 1.67 kW kg -1.
  • Here, we report a high performance magnesium-sodium hybrid battery utilizing a magnesium-sodium dual-salt electrolyte, a magnesium anode, and a Berlin green cathode. The cell delivers an average discharge voltage of 2.2 V and a reversible capacity of 143 mA h g –1. We also demonstrate the cell with an energy density of 135 W h kg –1 and a high power density of up to 1.67 kW kg –1.