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Title: Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface

Abstract

The present invention includes a method for determining the level of deep gas in a near surface formation that includes: measuring CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume from one or more surface or near surface geological samples; adding the water vapor content to the measured CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume; normalizing the gas mixture to 100% by volume or 1 atmospheric total pressure; and determining the ratios of: O.sub.2 versus CO.sub.2 to distinguish in-situ vadose zone CO.sub.2 from exogenous deep leakage CO.sub.2; CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2 to distinguish whether CO.sub.2 is being removed from the near surface formation or CO.sub.2 is added from an exogenous deep leakage input; or CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2/O.sub.2 to determine the degree of oxygen influx, consumption, or both; wherein the ratios are indicative of natural in situ CO.sub.2 or CO.sub.2 from the exogenous deep leakage input.

Inventors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Board of Regents, The University of Texas System, Austin, TX (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1356235
Patent Number(s):
9,645,129
Application Number:
14/318,087
Assignee:
Board of Regents, The University of Texas System NETL
DOE Contract Number:
FG04-90AL65847; FG26-05NT42590
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2014 Jun 27
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 58 GEOSCIENCES

Citation Formats

Romanak, Katherine, and Bennett, Philip C. Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Romanak, Katherine, & Bennett, Philip C. Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface. United States.
Romanak, Katherine, and Bennett, Philip C. 2017. "Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356235.
@article{osti_1356235,
title = {Process-based approach for the detection of deep gas invading the surface},
author = {Romanak, Katherine and Bennett, Philip C.},
abstractNote = {The present invention includes a method for determining the level of deep gas in a near surface formation that includes: measuring CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume from one or more surface or near surface geological samples; adding the water vapor content to the measured CO.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.4, and N.sub.2 levels in percent by volume; normalizing the gas mixture to 100% by volume or 1 atmospheric total pressure; and determining the ratios of: O.sub.2 versus CO.sub.2 to distinguish in-situ vadose zone CO.sub.2 from exogenous deep leakage CO.sub.2; CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2 to distinguish whether CO.sub.2 is being removed from the near surface formation or CO.sub.2 is added from an exogenous deep leakage input; or CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2/O.sub.2 to determine the degree of oxygen influx, consumption, or both; wherein the ratios are indicative of natural in situ CO.sub.2 or CO.sub.2 from the exogenous deep leakage input.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 5
}

Patent:

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  • The present invention includes a method for distinguishing between a natural source of deep gas and gas leaking from a CO.sub.2 storage reservoir at a near surface formation comprising: obtaining one or more surface or near surface geological samples; measuring a CO.sub.2, an O.sub.2, a CH.sub.4, and an N.sub.2 level from the surface or near surface geological sample; determining the water vapor content at or above the surface or near surface geological samples; normalizing the gas mixture of the CO.sub.2, the O.sub.2, the CH.sub.4, the N.sub.2 and the water vapor content to 100% by volume or 1 atmospheric total pressure;more » determining: a ratio of CO.sub.2 versus N.sub.2; and a ratio of CO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, wherein if the ratio is greater than that produced by a natural source of deep gas CO.sub.2 or deep gas methane oxidizing to CO.sub.2, the ratio is indicative of gas leaking from a CO.sub.2 storage reservoir.« less
  • A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500/degree/C, electrolysis at a voltage not more negative that about /minus/1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.
  • A process for extracting transition metals and particularly cobalt and manganese together with iron, copper and nickel from low grade ores (including ocean-floor nodules) by converting the metal oxides or other compositions to chlorides in a molten salt, and subsequently using a combination of selective distillation at temperatures below about 500.degree. C., electrolysis at a voltage not more negative than about -1.5 volt versus Ag/AgCl, and precipitation to separate the desired manganese and cobalt salts from other metals and provide cobalt and manganese in metallic forms or compositions from which these metals may be more easily recovered.
  • This patent describes a process for recovering at least three transition metals from an ore by direct dissolution of the ore in a molten salt comprising the steps of combining the ore with the molten salt containing mixed alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides or mixtures thereof to dissolve the transition metals as chlorides in the molten salt, the salt being at a temperature of not more than 500/sup 0/C., removing at least one transition metal chloride from the molten salt by distillation at a temperature below about 500/sup 0/C, electrolytically recovering at least a second transition metal from themore » molten salt at a voltage with respect to Ag/AgCl that is not more negative than about -1.5 volts, and treating the remaining molten salt with a source of oxygen to precipitate an oxide of at least a third transition metal.« less