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Title: Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.

Abstract

Whether structural or electronic, all solder joints must provide the necessary level of reliability for the application. The Part 1 report examined the effects of filler metal properties and the soldering process on joint reliability. Filler metal solderability and mechanical properties, as well as the extents of base material dissolution and interface reaction that occur during the soldering process, were shown to affect reliability performance. The continuation of this discussion is presented in this Part 2 report, which highlights those factors that directly affect solder joint reliability. There is the growth of an intermetallic compound (IMC) reaction layer at the solder/base material interface by means of solid-state diffusion processes. In terms of mechanical response by the solder joint, fatigue remains as the foremost concern for long-term performance. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF), a form of low-cycle fatigue (LCF), occurs when temperature cycling is combined with mismatched values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between materials comprising the solder joint “system.” Vibration environments give rise to high-cycle fatigue (HCF) degradation. Although accelerated aging studies provide valuable empirical data, too many variants of filler metals, base materials, joint geometries, and service environments are forcing design engineers to embrace computational modeling to predictmore » the long-term reliability of solder joints.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Security (NA-70)
OSTI Identifier:
1356221
Report Number(s):
SAND-2017-1070J
Journal ID: ISSN 0043-2296; 650892
Grant/Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Welding Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 96; Journal ID: ISSN 0043-2296
Publisher:
American Welding Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING

Citation Formats

Vianco, Paul T. Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Vianco, Paul T. Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.. United States.
Vianco, Paul T. Wed . "Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356221.
@article{osti_1356221,
title = {Understanding the Reliability of Solder Joints Used in Advanced Structural and Electronics Applications: Part 2 - Reliability Performance.},
author = {Vianco, Paul T.},
abstractNote = {Whether structural or electronic, all solder joints must provide the necessary level of reliability for the application. The Part 1 report examined the effects of filler metal properties and the soldering process on joint reliability. Filler metal solderability and mechanical properties, as well as the extents of base material dissolution and interface reaction that occur during the soldering process, were shown to affect reliability performance. The continuation of this discussion is presented in this Part 2 report, which highlights those factors that directly affect solder joint reliability. There is the growth of an intermetallic compound (IMC) reaction layer at the solder/base material interface by means of solid-state diffusion processes. In terms of mechanical response by the solder joint, fatigue remains as the foremost concern for long-term performance. Thermal mechanical fatigue (TMF), a form of low-cycle fatigue (LCF), occurs when temperature cycling is combined with mismatched values of the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) between materials comprising the solder joint “system.” Vibration environments give rise to high-cycle fatigue (HCF) degradation. Although accelerated aging studies provide valuable empirical data, too many variants of filler metals, base materials, joint geometries, and service environments are forcing design engineers to embrace computational modeling to predict the long-term reliability of solder joints.},
doi = {},
journal = {Welding Journal},
number = ,
volume = 96,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
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  • Soldering technology has made tremendous strides in the past half-century. Whether structural or electronic, all solder joints must provide a level of reliability that is required by the application. This Part 1 report examines the effects of filler metal properties and soldering process on joint reliability. Solder alloy composition must have the appropriate melting and mechanical properties that suit the product's assembly process(es) and use environment. The filler metal must also optimize solderability (wetting-and-spreading) to realize the proper joint geometry. Here, the soldering process also affects joint reliability. The choice of flux and thermal profile support the solderability performance ofmore » the molten filler metal to successfully fill the gap and complete the fillet.« less
  • Particles of Cu x Al y in Sn-Cu-Al solders have previously been shown to nucleate the Cu 6Sn 5 phase during solidification. In this study, the number and size of Cu 6Sn 5 nucleation sites were controlled through the particle size refinement of Cu x Al y via rapid solidification processing and controlled cooling in a differential scanning calorimeter. Cooling rates spanning eight orders of magnitude were used to refine the average Cu x Al y and Cu 6Sn 5 particle sizes down to submicron ranges. The average particle sizes, particle size distributions, and morphologies in the microstructures were analyzedmore » as a function of alloy composition and cooling rate. Deep etching of the samples revealed the three-dimensional microstructures and illuminated the epitaxial and morphological relationships between the Cu x Al y and Cu 6Sn 5 phases. Transitions in the Cu 6Sn 5 particle morphologies from faceted rods to nonfaceted, equiaxed particles were observed as a function of both cooling rate and composition. Initial solidification cooling rates within the range of 10 3 to 10 4 °C/s were found to be optimal for realizing particle size refinement and maintaining the Cu x Al y /Cu 6Sn 5 nucleant relationship. In addition, little evidence of the formation or decomposition of the ternary-β phase in the solidified alloys was noted. As a result, solidification pathways omitting the formation of the ternary-β phase agreed well with observed room temperature microstructures.« less
  • Controlling the size, dispersion, and stability of intermetallic compounds in lead-free solder alloys is vital to creating reliable solder joints regardless of how many times the solder joints are melted and resolidified (reflowed) during circuit board assembly. In this article, the coarsening behavior of Cu x Al y and Cu 6Sn 5 in two Sn-Cu-Al alloys, a Sn-2.59Cu-0.43Al at. pct alloy produced via drip atomization and a Sn-5.39Cu-1.69Al at. pct alloy produced via melt spinning at a 5-m/s wheel speed, was characterized after multiple (1-5) reflow cycles via differential scanning calorimetry between the temperatures of 293 K and 523 Kmore » (20 °C and 250 °C). Little-to-no coarsening of the Cu x Al y particles was observed for either composition; however, clustering of Cu x Al y particles was observed. For Cu 6Sn 5 particle growth, a bimodal size distribution was observed for the drip atomized alloy, with large, faceted growth of Cu 6Sn 5 observed, while in the melt spun alloy, Cu 6Sn 5 particles displayed no significant increase in the average particle size, with irregularly shaped, nonfaceted Cu 6Sn 5 particles observed after reflow, which is consistent with shapes observed in the as-solidified alloys. The link between original alloy composition, reflow undercooling, and subsequent intermetallic coarsening behavior was discussed by using calculated solidification paths. As a result, the reflowed microstructures suggested that the heteroepitaxial relationship previously observed between the Cu x Al y and the Cu 6Sn 5 was maintained for both alloys.« less
  • There is a significant need for next generation, high performance power electronic packages and systems with wide band gap devices to operate at high temperatures in automotive and electricity transmission applications. Sn-3.5Ag solder is a candidate for use in such packages with potential operating temperatures up to 200oC. However, there is a need to understand thermal cycling reliability of Sn-3.5Ag solders subject to such operating conditions. The results of a study on the damage evolution occurring in large area Sn-3.5Ag solders joints between silicon dies and DBC substrates subject to thermal cycling between 200oC and 5oC is presented in thismore » paper. Damage accumulation was followed using high resolution X-ray radiography techniques while nonlinear finite element models were developed based on the mechanical property data available in literature to understand the relationship between the stress state within the solder joint and the damage evolution occurring under thermal cycling conditions. It was observed that regions of damage observed in the experiments do not correspond to the finite element predictions of the location of regions of maximum plastic work.« less