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Title: Observation and modeling of interspecies ion separation in inertial confinement fusion implosions via imaging x-ray spectroscopy

Abstract

In this article, we report the first direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility via spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolved imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data [S. C. Hsu et al., Europhys. Lett. 115, 65001 (2016)]. These experiments were designed based on the expectation that interspecies ion thermo-diffusion would be the strongest for species with a large mass and charge difference. The targets were spherical plastic shells filled with D2 and a trace amount of Ar (0.1% or 1% by atom). Ar K-shell spectral features were observed primarily between the time of first-shock convergence and slightly before the neutron bang time, using a time- and space-integrated spectrometer, a streaked crystal spectrometer, and two gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imagers fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines of sight. Detailed spectroscopic analyses of spatially resolved Ar K-shell lines reveal the deviation from the initial 1% Ar gas fill and show both Ar-concentration enhancement and depletion at different times and radial positions of the implosion. The experimental results are interpreted using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. Lastly, the experimentally inferred Ar-atom fraction profiles agree reasonably with calculated profiles associated with themore » incoming and rebounding first shock.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
  2. Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1356144
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-16-29528
Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Physics of Plasmas
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 24; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 1070-664X
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; Interspecies ion separation, MMI

Citation Formats

Joshi, Tirtha Raj, Hakel, Peter, Hsu, Scott C., Vold, Erik Lehman, Schmitt, Mark J., Hoffman, Nelson M., Rauenzahn, Rick M., Kagan, Grigory, Tang, Xianzhu, Mancini, R. C., Kim, Yong Ho, and Herrmann, Hans W. Observation and modeling of interspecies ion separation in inertial confinement fusion implosions via imaging x-ray spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4978887.
Joshi, Tirtha Raj, Hakel, Peter, Hsu, Scott C., Vold, Erik Lehman, Schmitt, Mark J., Hoffman, Nelson M., Rauenzahn, Rick M., Kagan, Grigory, Tang, Xianzhu, Mancini, R. C., Kim, Yong Ho, & Herrmann, Hans W. Observation and modeling of interspecies ion separation in inertial confinement fusion implosions via imaging x-ray spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4978887.
Joshi, Tirtha Raj, Hakel, Peter, Hsu, Scott C., Vold, Erik Lehman, Schmitt, Mark J., Hoffman, Nelson M., Rauenzahn, Rick M., Kagan, Grigory, Tang, Xianzhu, Mancini, R. C., Kim, Yong Ho, and Herrmann, Hans W. Wed . "Observation and modeling of interspecies ion separation in inertial confinement fusion implosions via imaging x-ray spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4978887. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1356144.
@article{osti_1356144,
title = {Observation and modeling of interspecies ion separation in inertial confinement fusion implosions via imaging x-ray spectroscopy},
author = {Joshi, Tirtha Raj and Hakel, Peter and Hsu, Scott C. and Vold, Erik Lehman and Schmitt, Mark J. and Hoffman, Nelson M. and Rauenzahn, Rick M. and Kagan, Grigory and Tang, Xianzhu and Mancini, R. C. and Kim, Yong Ho and Herrmann, Hans W.},
abstractNote = {In this article, we report the first direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments performed at the OMEGA laser facility via spectrally, temporally, and spatially resolved imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data [S. C. Hsu et al., Europhys. Lett. 115, 65001 (2016)]. These experiments were designed based on the expectation that interspecies ion thermo-diffusion would be the strongest for species with a large mass and charge difference. The targets were spherical plastic shells filled with D2 and a trace amount of Ar (0.1% or 1% by atom). Ar K-shell spectral features were observed primarily between the time of first-shock convergence and slightly before the neutron bang time, using a time- and space-integrated spectrometer, a streaked crystal spectrometer, and two gated multi-monochromatic x-ray imagers fielded along quasi-orthogonal lines of sight. Detailed spectroscopic analyses of spatially resolved Ar K-shell lines reveal the deviation from the initial 1% Ar gas fill and show both Ar-concentration enhancement and depletion at different times and radial positions of the implosion. The experimental results are interpreted using radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles models of interspecies ion diffusion. Lastly, the experimentally inferred Ar-atom fraction profiles agree reasonably with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4978887},
journal = {Physics of Plasmas},
number = 5,
volume = 24,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 22 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 22 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Here we report direct experimental evidence of interspecies ion separation in direct-drive, inertial-confinement-fusion experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. These experiments, which used plastic capsules with D 2/Ar gas fill (1% Ar by atom), were designed specifically to reveal interspecies ion separation by exploiting the predicted, strong ion thermo-diffusion between ion species of large mass and charge difference. Via detailed analyses of imaging x-ray-spectroscopy data, we extract Ar-atom-fraction radial profiles at different times, and observe both enhancement and depletion compared to the initial 1%-Ar gas fill. The experimental results are interpreted with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations that include recently implemented, first-principles modelsmore » of interspecies ion diffusion. Finally, the experimentally inferred Ar-atom-fraction profiles agree reasonably, but not exactly, with calculated profiles associated with the incoming and rebounding first shock.« less
  • The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D{sup 3}He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N{sub K}) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatiallymore » resolved measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N{sub K} ∼ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less
  • The significance and nature of ion kinetic effects in D³He-filled, shock-driven inertial confinement fusion implosions are assessed through measurements of fusion burn profiles. Over this series of experiments, the ratio of ion-ion mean free path to minimum shell radius (the Knudsen number, N K) was varied from 0.3 to 9 in order to probe hydrodynamic-like to strongly kinetic plasma conditions; as the Knudsen number increased, hydrodynamic models increasingly failed to match measured yields, while an empirically-tuned, first-step model of ion kinetic effects better captured the observed yield trends [Rosenberg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 185001 (2014)]. Here, spatially resolvedmore » measurements of the fusion burn are used to examine kinetic ion transport effects in greater detail, adding an additional dimension of understanding that goes beyond zero-dimensional integrated quantities to one-dimensional profiles. In agreement with the previous findings, a comparison of measured and simulated burn profiles shows that models including ion transport effects are able to better match the experimental results. In implosions characterized by large Knudsen numbers (N K ~ 3), the fusion burn profiles predicted by hydrodynamics simulations that exclude ion mean free path effects are peaked far from the origin, in stark disagreement with the experimentally observed profiles, which are centrally peaked. In contrast, a hydrodynamics simulation that includes a model of ion diffusion is able to qualitatively match the measured profile shapes. Therefore, ion diffusion or diffusion-like processes are identified as a plausible explanation of the observed trends, though further refinement of the models is needed for a more complete and quantitative understanding of ion kinetic effects.« less
  • Cited by 6
  • In an indirectly driven implosion, non-radial translational motion of the compressed fusion capsule is a signature of residual kinetic energy not coupled into the compressional heating of the target. A reduction in compression reduces the peak pressure and nuclear performance of the implosion. Measuring and reducing the residual motion of the implosion is therefore necessary to improve performance and isolate other effects that degrade performance. Using the gated x-ray diagnostic, the x-ray Bremsstrahlung emission from the compressed capsule is spatially and temporally resolved at x-ray energies of >8.7 keV, allowing for measurements of the residual velocity. Here details of themore » x-ray velocity measurement and fitting routine will be discussed and measurements will be compared to the velocities inferred from the neutron time of flight detectors.« less