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Title: Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITO R and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226

Abstract

Here, we present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Finally, due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355742
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays; general; gravitational waves; methods; observational

Citation Formats

Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82.
Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., & Wood, M.. Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82.
Racusin, J. L., Burns, E., Goldstein, A., Connaughton, V., Wilson-Hodge, C. A., Jenke, P., Blackburn, L., Briggs, M. S., Broida, J., Camp, J., Christensen, N., Hui, C. M., Littenberg, T., Shawhan, P., Singer, L., Veitch, J., Bhat, P. N., Cleveland, W., Fitzpatrick, G., Gibby, M. H., Kienlin, A. von, McBreen, S., Mailyan, B., Meegan, C. A., Paciesas, W. S., Preece, R. D., Roberts, O. J., Stanbro, M., Veres, P., Zhang, B. -B., Ackermann, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Axelsson, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Baring, M. G., Bastieri, D., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Charles, E., Chiang, J., Ciprini, S., Costanza, F., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Gill, R., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Granot, J., Green, D., Grove, J. E., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Harding, A. K., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Kamae, T., Kensei, S., Kocevski, D., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Parkinson, P. M. Saz, Scargle, J. D., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Smith, D. A., Spada, F., Spinelli, P., Suson, D. J., Tajima, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., and Wood, M.. Thu . "Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355742.
@article{osti_1355742,
title = {Searching the Gamma-Ray Sky for Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Sources: FERMI Gamma Ray Burst MONITOR and Large Area Telescope Observations of LVT151012 and GW151226},
author = {Racusin, J. L. and Burns, E. and Goldstein, A. and Connaughton, V. and Wilson-Hodge, C. A. and Jenke, P. and Blackburn, L. and Briggs, M. S. and Broida, J. and Camp, J. and Christensen, N. and Hui, C. M. and Littenberg, T. and Shawhan, P. and Singer, L. and Veitch, J. and Bhat, P. N. and Cleveland, W. and Fitzpatrick, G. and Gibby, M. H. and Kienlin, A. von and McBreen, S. and Mailyan, B. and Meegan, C. A. and Paciesas, W. S. and Preece, R. D. and Roberts, O. J. and Stanbro, M. and Veres, P. and Zhang, B. -B. and Ackermann, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Axelsson, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Baring, M. G. and Bastieri, D. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Charles, E. and Chiang, J. and Ciprini, S. and Costanza, F. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Lalla, N. Di and Mauro, M. Di and Venere, L. Di and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Gill, R. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Granot, J. and Green, D. and Grove, J. E. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Harding, A. K. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Kamae, T. and Kensei, S. and Kocevski, D. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lubrano, P. and Magill, J. D. and Maldera, S. and Malyshev, D. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Parkinson, P. M. Saz and Scargle, J. D. and Sgrò, C. and Simone, D. and Siskind, E. J. and Smith, D. A. and Spada, F. and Spinelli, P. and Suson, D. J. and Tajima, H. and Thayer, J. B. and Torres, D. F. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds across large areas of the sky. Finally, due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/1/82},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • We present the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations of the LIGO binary black hole merger event GW151226 and candidate LVT151012. At the time of the LIGO triggers on LVT151012 and GW151226, GBM was observing 68% and 83% of the localization regions, and LAT was observing 47% and 32%, respectively. No candidate electromagnetic counterparts were detected by either the GBM or LAT. We present a detailed analysis of the GBM and LAT data over a range of timescales from seconds to years, using automated pipelines and new techniques for characterizing the flux upper bounds acrossmore » large areas of the sky. Due to the partial GBM and LAT coverage of the large LIGO localization regions at the trigger times for both events, differences in source distances and masses, as well as the uncertain degree to which emission from these sources could be beamed, these non-detections cannot be used to constrain the variety of theoretical models recently applied to explain the candidate GBM counterpart to GW150914.« less
  • Cited by 63
  • For this research, we analyze the MeV/GeV emission from four bright gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope to produce robust, stringent constraints on a dependence of the speed of light in vacuo on the photon energy (vacuum dispersion), a form of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) allowed by some quantum gravity (QG) theories. First, we use three different and complementary techniques to constrain the total degree of dispersion observed in the data. Additionally, using a maximally conservative set of assumptions on possible source-intrinsic, spectral-evolution effects, we constrain any vacuum dispersion solely attributed to LIV. We then derivemore » limits on the QG energy scale (the energy scale where LIV-inducing QG effects become strong, E QG) and the coefficients of the Standard Model Extension. For the subluminal case (where high-energy photons propagate more slowly than lower-energy photons) and without taking into account any source-intrinsic dispersion, our most stringent limits (at 95% C.L.) are obtained from GRB 090510 and are E QG,1 > 7.6 times the Planck energy (E Pl) and E QG,2 > 1.3 × 10 11 GeV for linear and quadratic leading-order LIV-induced vacuum dispersion, respectively. In conclusion, these limits improve the latest constraints by Fermi and H.E.S.S. by a factor of ~2 . Our results disfavor any class of models requiring E QG,1 ≲ E Pl .« less
  • One of the main results of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope is the discovery of γ-ray selected pulsars. The high magnetic field pulsar, PSR J0007+7303 in CTA1, was the first ever to be discovered through its γ-ray pulsations. Based on analysis of 2 years of LAT survey data, we report on the discovery of γ-ray emission in the off-pulse phase interval at the ~ 6σ level. The flux from this emission in the energy range E ≥ 100 MeV is F100 = (1.73±0.40)×10 -8 photons cm -2 s -1 and is best fitted by a power law with a photonmore » index of Γ = 2.54±0.14. The pulsed -ray flux in the same energy range is F100 = (3.95±0.07)×10 -7 photons cm -2 s -1 and is best fitted by an exponentially-cutoff power-law spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 1.41 ± 0.23 and a cutoff energy Ec = 4.04 ± 0.20 GeV. We find no flux variability neither at the 2009 May glitch nor in the long term behavior. We model the γ-ray light curve with two high-altitude emission models, the outer gap and slot gap, and find that the model that best fits the data depends strongly on the assumed origin of the off-pulse emission. Both models favor a large angle between the magnetic axis and observer line of sight, consistent with the nondetection of radio emission being a geometrical effect. Finally we discuss how the LAT results bear on the understanding of the cooling of this neutron star.« less
  • Here, we report Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations and broadband spectral modeling of the radio-loud active galaxy 4C +55.17 (z = 0.896), formally classified as a flat-spectrum radio quasar. Using 19 months of all-sky survey Fermi-LAT data, we detect a γ-ray continuum extending up to an observed energy of 145 GeV, and furthermore we find no evidence of γ-ray variability in the source over its observed history. We illustrate the implications of these results in two different domains. First, we investigate the origin of the steady γ-ray emission, where we re-examine the common classification of 4C +55.17 as amore » quasar-hosted blazar and consider instead its possible nature as a young radio source. We analyze and compare constraints on the source physical parameters in both blazar and young radio source scenarios by means of a detailed multiwavelength analysis and theoretical modeling of its broadband spectrum. Second, we show that the γ-ray spectrum may be formally extrapolated into the very high energy (VHE, ≥100 GeV) range at a flux level detectable by the current generation of ground-based Cherenkov telescopes. This enables us to place constraints on models of extragalactic background light within LAT energies and features the source as a promising candidate for VHE studies of the universe at an unprecedented redshift of z = 0.896.« less