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Title: Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years

Abstract

Here, the detection of high-redshift ($$z\,\gt 3$$) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five γ-ray-emitting blazars beyond z = 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in γ-rays. Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known γ-ray-emitting blazar at z = 4.31. These objects have steeply falling γ-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance (ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large ($$\gt 20$$). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes ($${M}_{\mathrm{BH}}\sim {10}^{8-10}\,{M}_{\odot }$$). We find that, at $$z\approx 4$$, the space density of $$\gt {10}^{9}\,{M}_{\odot }$$ black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1355734
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 837; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: active; galaxies: high-redshift; galaxies: jets; gamma rays: galaxies; quasars: general

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Conrad, J., Costantin, D., Costanza, F., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hartmann, D. H., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marcotulli, L., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stalin, C. S., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, M., Tanaka, K., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., and Wood, K. S. Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa5fff.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Conrad, J., Costantin, D., Costanza, F., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hartmann, D. H., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marcotulli, L., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stalin, C. S., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, M., Tanaka, K., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., & Wood, K. S. Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa5fff.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Gonzalez, J. Becerra, Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Cheung, C. C., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Conrad, J., Costantin, D., Costanza, F., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Lalla, N. Di, Mauro, M. Di, Venere, L. Di, Domínguez, A., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Ferrara, E. C., Finke, J., Focke, W. B., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Green, D., Grenier, I. A., Guillemot, L., Guiriec, S., Hartmann, D. H., Hays, E., Horan, D., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Mura, G. La, Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Magill, J. D., Maldera, S., Manfreda, A., Marcotulli, L., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mirabal, N., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Negro, M., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Ojha, R., Omodei, N., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paliya, V. S., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Persic, M., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Porter, T. A., Principe, G., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Rani, B., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Romani, R. W., Sgrò, C., Simone, D., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Stalin, C. S., Stawarz, L., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, M., Tanaka, K., Thayer, J. B., Thompson, D. J., Torres, D. F., Torresi, E., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., and Wood, K. S. Mon . "Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aa5fff. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355734.
@article{osti_1355734,
title = {Gamma-ray blazars within the first 2 billion years},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Gonzalez, J. Becerra and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Cameron, R. A. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Cheung, C. C. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Conrad, J. and Costantin, D. and Costanza, F. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Lalla, N. Di and Mauro, M. Di and Venere, L. Di and Domínguez, A. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Ferrara, E. C. and Finke, J. and Focke, W. B. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Green, D. and Grenier, I. A. and Guillemot, L. and Guiriec, S. and Hartmann, D. H. and Hays, E. and Horan, D. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Kuss, M. and Mura, G. La and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Magill, J. D. and Maldera, S. and Manfreda, A. and Marcotulli, L. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Michelson, P. F. and Mirabal, N. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Negro, M. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Ojha, R. and Omodei, N. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paliya, V. S. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Persic, M. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Porter, T. A. and Principe, G. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Rani, B. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Romani, R. W. and Sgrò, C. and Simone, D. and Siskind, E. J. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Stalin, C. S. and Stawarz, L. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, M. and Tanaka, K. and Thayer, J. B. and Thompson, D. J. and Torres, D. F. and Torresi, E. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S.},
abstractNote = {Here, the detection of high-redshift ($z\,\gt 3$) blazars enables the study of the evolution of the most luminous relativistic jets over cosmic time. More importantly, high-redshift blazars tend to host massive black holes and can be used to constrain the space density of heavy black holes in the early universe. Here, we report the first detection with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope of five γ-ray-emitting blazars beyond z = 3.1, more distant than any blazars previously detected in γ-rays. Among these five objects, NVSS J151002+570243 is now the most distant known γ-ray-emitting blazar at z = 4.31. These objects have steeply falling γ-ray spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and those that have been observed in X-rays have a very hard X-ray spectrum, both typical of powerful blazars. Their Compton dominance (ratio of the inverse Compton to synchrotron peak luminosities) is also very large ($\gt 20$). All of these properties place these objects among the most extreme members of the blazar population. Their optical spectra and the modeling of their optical-UV SEDs confirm that these objects harbor massive black holes (${M}_{\mathrm{BH}}\sim {10}^{8-10}\,{M}_{\odot }$). We find that, at $z\approx 4$, the space density of $\gt {10}^{9}\,{M}_{\odot }$ black holes hosted in radio-loud and radio-quiet active galactic nuclei are similar, implying that radio-loudness may play a key role in rapid black hole growth in the early universe.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8213/aa5fff},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 837,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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