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Title: The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV

Abstract

We present that the γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV usingmore » our baseline DGE model. In conclusion, the total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10 –6 cm –2 s –1 sr –1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355173
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 799; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays; diffuse background; diffuse radiation

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S.. The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., & Zimmer, S.. The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Ballet, J., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Blandford, R. D., Bloom, E. D., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiang, J., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Claus, R., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cuoco, A., Cutini, S., D'Ammando, F., de Angelis, A., de Palma, F., Dermer, C. D., Digel, S. W., do Couto e Silva, E., Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Ferrara, E. C., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Germani, S., Giglietto, N., Giommi, P., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hadasch, D., Hayashi, K., Hays, E., Hewitt, J. W., Ippoliti, P., Jogler, T., Jóhannesson, G., Johnson, A. S., Johnson, W. N., Kamae, T., Kataoka, J., Knödlseder, J., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lott, B., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Madejski, G. M., Manfreda, A., Massaro, F., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., McEnery, J. E., Michelson, P. F., Mitthumsiri, W., Mizuno, T., Moiseev, A. A., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nemmen, R., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Omodei, N., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Panetta, J. H., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainò, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Razzaque, S., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Reposeur, T., Ritz, S., Romani, R. W., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schaal, M., Schulz, A., Sgrò, C., Siskind, E. J., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Strong, A. W., Suson, D. J., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. G., Thayer, J. B., Tibaldo, L., Tinivella, M., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Uchiyama, Y., Vianello, G., Werner, M., Winer, B. L., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S.. Mon . "The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355173.
@article{osti_1355173,
title = {The spectrum of isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission between 100 MeV and 820 GeV},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Ballet, J. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Blandford, R. D. and Bloom, E. D. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiang, J. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Claus, R. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cuoco, A. and Cutini, S. and D'Ammando, F. and de Angelis, A. and de Palma, F. and Dermer, C. D. and Digel, S. W. and do Couto e Silva, E. and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Ferrara, E. C. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Germani, S. and Giglietto, N. and Giommi, P. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hadasch, D. and Hayashi, K. and Hays, E. and Hewitt, J. W. and Ippoliti, P. and Jogler, T. and Jóhannesson, G. and Johnson, A. S. and Johnson, W. N. and Kamae, T. and Kataoka, J. and Knödlseder, J. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lott, B. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Madejski, G. M. and Manfreda, A. and Massaro, F. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and McEnery, J. E. and Michelson, P. F. and Mitthumsiri, W. and Mizuno, T. and Moiseev, A. A. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nemmen, R. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Omodei, N. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Panetta, J. H. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainò, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Razzaque, S. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Reposeur, T. and Ritz, S. and Romani, R. W. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Schaal, M. and Schulz, A. and Sgrò, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Strong, A. W. and Suson, D. J. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. G. and Thayer, J. B. and Tibaldo, L. and Tinivella, M. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Uchiyama, Y. and Vianello, G. and Werner, M. and Winer, B. L. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {We present that the γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. In conclusion, the total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10–6 cm–2 s–1 sr–1 above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/799/1/86},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 799,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Mon Jan 19 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

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  • The γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvementsmore » in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10{sup –6} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.« less
  • We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called 'extra-galactic' diffuse {gamma}-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse {gamma}-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modelling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic {gamma}-ray emission (DGE), the detected LAT sources and the solar {gamma}-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with differential spectral index {gamma} = 2.41 {+-} 0.05 and intensity, I(>more » 100 MeV) = (1.03 {+-} 0.17) x 10{sup -5} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}, where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.« less
  • Here, we report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called “extragalactic” diffuse γ -ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse γ -ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic γ -ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar γ -ray emission. We also find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index γ =more » 2.41 ± 0.05 and intensity I ( > 100 MeV ) = ( 1.03 ± 0.17 ) × 10 - 5 cm -2 s - 1 sr - 1 , where the error is systematics dominated. The EGB spectrum, presented here, is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.« less
  • The high-energy GeV emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi/LAT has a significantly different morphology compared to the lower energy MeV emission detected by Fermi/GBM. Though the late-time GeV emission is believed to be synchrotron radiation produced via an external shock, this emission as early as the prompt phase is puzzling. A meaningful connection between these two emissions can be drawn only by an accurate description of the prompt MeV spectrum. We perform a time-resolved spectroscopy of the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data of long GRBs with significant GeV emission, using a model consisting of two blackbodies and amore » power law. We examine in detail the evolution of the spectral components and find that GRBs with high GeV emission (GRB 090902B and GRB 090926A) have a delayed onset of the power-law component in the GBM spectrum, which lingers at the later part of the prompt emission. This behavior mimics the flux evolution in the Large Area Telescope (LAT). In contrast, bright GBM GRBs with an order of magnitude lower GeV emission (GRB 100724B and GRB 091003) show a coupled variability of the total and the power-law flux. Further, by analyzing the data for a set of 17 GRBs, we find a strong correlation between the power-law fluence in the MeV and the LAT fluence (Pearson correlation: r = 0.88 and Spearman correlation: ρ = 0.81). We demonstrate that this correlation is not influenced by the correlation between the total and the power-law fluences at a confidence level of 2.3σ. We speculate the possible radiation mechanisms responsible for the correlation.« less
  • We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the lowmore » mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded.« less