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Title: The 2012 flare of PG 1553+113 seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT

Abstract

Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553+113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. Also, the flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE γ-ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting γ-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 ± 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. In addition, the indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are E QG,1 > 4.10 × 10 17 GeV and E QG,2 > 2.10 × 10 10 GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
Fermi-LAT Collaboration; H.E.S.S. Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355172
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 802; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; Galaxies; active – BL Lacertae objects; Individual; PG 1553+113 – Gamma rays; observations – Quantum Gravity – Lorentz invariance breaking

Citation Formats

Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Benkhali, F. Ait, Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E. O., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Tjus, J. Becker, Berge, D., Bernhard, S., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Bregeon, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bryan, M., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chakraborty, N., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Donath, A., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiaßon, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., FüSSling, M., Gabici, S., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Gottschall, D., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Hadsch, D., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Ivascenko, A., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lefranc, V., Lemiére, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Mitchell, A. M. W., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Morå, K., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naurois, M. de, Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Salek, D., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spanier, F., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Veh, J., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Vink, J., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zaborov, D., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., and Zechlin, H. -S.. The 2012 flare of PG 1553+113 seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/65.
Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Benkhali, F. Ait, Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E. O., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Tjus, J. Becker, Berge, D., Bernhard, S., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Bregeon, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bryan, M., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chakraborty, N., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Donath, A., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiaßon, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., FüSSling, M., Gabici, S., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Gottschall, D., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Hadsch, D., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Ivascenko, A., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lefranc, V., Lemiére, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Mitchell, A. M. W., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Morå, K., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naurois, M. de, Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Salek, D., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spanier, F., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Veh, J., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Vink, J., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zaborov, D., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., & Zechlin, H. -S.. The 2012 flare of PG 1553+113 seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/65.
Abramowski, A., Aharonian, F., Benkhali, F. Ait, Akhperjanian, A. G., Angüner, E. O., Backes, M., Balenderan, S., Balzer, A., Barnacka, A., Becherini, Y., Tjus, J. Becker, Berge, D., Bernhard, S., Bernlöhr, K., Birsin, E., Biteau, J., Böttcher, M., Boisson, C., Bolmont, J., Bordas, P., Bregeon, J., Brun, F., Brun, P., Bryan, M., Bulik, T., Carrigan, S., Casanova, S., Chadwick, P. M., Chakraborty, N., Chalme-Calvet, R., Chaves, R. C. G., Chrétien, M., Colafrancesco, S., Cologna, G., Conrad, J., Couturier, C., Cui, Y., Dalton, M., Davids, I. D., Degrange, B., Deil, C., deWilt, P., Djannati-Ataï, A., Domainko, W., Donath, A., Drury, L. O’C., Dubus, G., Dutson, K., Dyks, J., Dyrda, M., Edwards, T., Egberts, K., Eger, P., Espigat, P., Farnier, C., Fegan, S., Feinstein, F., Fernandes, M. V., Fernandez, D., Fiaßon, A., Fontaine, G., Förster, A., FüSSling, M., Gabici, S., Gajdus, M., Gallant, Y. A., Garrigoux, T., Giavitto, G., Giebels, B., Glicenstein, J. F., Gottschall, D., Grondin, M. -H., Grudzińska, M., Hadsch, D., Häffner, S., Hahn, J., Harris, J., Heinzelmann, G., Henri, G., Hermann, G., Hervet, O., Hillert, A., Hinton, J. A., Hofmann, W., Hofverberg, P., Holler, M., Horns, D., Ivascenko, A., Jacholkowska, A., Jahn, C., Jamrozy, M., Janiak, M., Jankowsky, F., Jung, I., Kastendieck, M. A., Katarzyński, K., Katz, U., Kaufmann, S., Khélifi, B., Kieffer, M., Klepser, S., Klochkov, D., Kluźniak, W., Kolitzus, D., Komin, Nu., Kosack, K., Krakau, S., Krayzel, F., Krüger, P. P., Laffon, H., Lamanna, G., Lefaucheur, J., Lefranc, V., Lemiére, A., Lemoine-Goumard, M., Lenain, J. -P., Lohse, T., Lopatin, A., Lu, C. -C., Marandon, V., Marcowith, A., Marx, R., Maurin, G., Maxted, N., Mayer, M., McComb, T. J. L., Méhault, J., Meintjes, P. J., Menzler, U., Meyer, M., Mitchell, A. M. W., Moderski, R., Mohamed, M., Morå, K., Moulin, E., Murach, T., Naurois, M. de, Niemiec, J., Nolan, S. J., Oakes, L., Odaka, H., Ohm, S., Opitz, B., Ostrowski, M., Oya, I., Panter, M., Parsons, R. D., Paz Arribas, M., Pekeur, N. W., Pelletier, G., Perez, J., Petrucci, P. -O., Peyaud, B., Pita, S., Poon, H., Pühlhofer, G., Punch, M., Quirrenbach, A., Raab, S., Reichardt, I., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Renaud, M., de los Reyes, R., Rieger, F., Rob, L., Romoli, C., Rosier-Lees, S., Rowell, G., Rudak, B., Rulten, C. B., Sahakian, V., Salek, D., Sanchez, D. A., Santangelo, A., Schlickeiser, R., Schüssler, F., Schulz, A., Schwanke, U., Schwarzburg, S., Schwemmer, S., Sol, H., Spanier, F., Spengler, G., Spies, F., Stawarz, Ł., Steenkamp, R., Stegmann, C., Stinzing, F., Stycz, K., Sushch, I., Tavernet, J. -P., Tavernier, T., Taylor, A. M., Terrier, R., Tluczykont, M., Trichard, C., Valerius, K., van Eldik, C., van Soelen, B., Vasileiadis, G., Veh, J., Venter, C., Viana, A., Vincent, P., Vink, J., Völk, H. J., Volpe, F., Vorster, M., Vuillaume, T., Wagner, P., Wagner, R. M., Ward, M., Weidinger, M., Weitzel, Q., White, R., Wierzcholska, A., Willmann, P., Wörnlein, A., Wouters, D., Yang, R., Zabalza, V., Zaborov, D., Zacharias, M., Zdziarski, A. A., Zech, A., and Zechlin, H. -S.. Tue . "The 2012 flare of PG 1553+113 seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/65. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355172.
@article{osti_1355172,
title = {The 2012 flare of PG 1553+113 seen with H.E.S.S. and Fermi-LAT},
author = {Abramowski, A. and Aharonian, F. and Benkhali, F. Ait and Akhperjanian, A. G. and Angüner, E. O. and Backes, M. and Balenderan, S. and Balzer, A. and Barnacka, A. and Becherini, Y. and Tjus, J. Becker and Berge, D. and Bernhard, S. and Bernlöhr, K. and Birsin, E. and Biteau, J. and Böttcher, M. and Boisson, C. and Bolmont, J. and Bordas, P. and Bregeon, J. and Brun, F. and Brun, P. and Bryan, M. and Bulik, T. and Carrigan, S. and Casanova, S. and Chadwick, P. M. and Chakraborty, N. and Chalme-Calvet, R. and Chaves, R. C. G. and Chrétien, M. and Colafrancesco, S. and Cologna, G. and Conrad, J. and Couturier, C. and Cui, Y. and Dalton, M. and Davids, I. D. and Degrange, B. and Deil, C. and deWilt, P. and Djannati-Ataï, A. and Domainko, W. and Donath, A. and Drury, L. O’C. and Dubus, G. and Dutson, K. and Dyks, J. and Dyrda, M. and Edwards, T. and Egberts, K. and Eger, P. and Espigat, P. and Farnier, C. and Fegan, S. and Feinstein, F. and Fernandes, M. V. and Fernandez, D. and Fiaßon, A. and Fontaine, G. and Förster, A. and FüSSling, M. and Gabici, S. and Gajdus, M. and Gallant, Y. A. and Garrigoux, T. and Giavitto, G. and Giebels, B. and Glicenstein, J. F. and Gottschall, D. and Grondin, M. -H. and Grudzińska, M. and Hadsch, D. and Häffner, S. and Hahn, J. and Harris, J. and Heinzelmann, G. and Henri, G. and Hermann, G. and Hervet, O. and Hillert, A. and Hinton, J. A. and Hofmann, W. and Hofverberg, P. and Holler, M. and Horns, D. and Ivascenko, A. and Jacholkowska, A. and Jahn, C. and Jamrozy, M. and Janiak, M. and Jankowsky, F. and Jung, I. and Kastendieck, M. A. and Katarzyński, K. and Katz, U. and Kaufmann, S. and Khélifi, B. and Kieffer, M. and Klepser, S. and Klochkov, D. and Kluźniak, W. and Kolitzus, D. and Komin, Nu. and Kosack, K. and Krakau, S. and Krayzel, F. and Krüger, P. P. and Laffon, H. and Lamanna, G. and Lefaucheur, J. and Lefranc, V. and Lemiére, A. and Lemoine-Goumard, M. and Lenain, J. -P. and Lohse, T. and Lopatin, A. and Lu, C. -C. and Marandon, V. and Marcowith, A. and Marx, R. and Maurin, G. and Maxted, N. and Mayer, M. and McComb, T. J. L. and Méhault, J. and Meintjes, P. J. and Menzler, U. and Meyer, M. and Mitchell, A. M. W. and Moderski, R. and Mohamed, M. and Morå, K. and Moulin, E. and Murach, T. and Naurois, M. de and Niemiec, J. and Nolan, S. J. and Oakes, L. and Odaka, H. and Ohm, S. and Opitz, B. and Ostrowski, M. and Oya, I. and Panter, M. and Parsons, R. D. and Paz Arribas, M. and Pekeur, N. W. and Pelletier, G. and Perez, J. and Petrucci, P. -O. and Peyaud, B. and Pita, S. and Poon, H. and Pühlhofer, G. and Punch, M. and Quirrenbach, A. and Raab, S. and Reichardt, I. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Renaud, M. and de los Reyes, R. and Rieger, F. and Rob, L. and Romoli, C. and Rosier-Lees, S. and Rowell, G. and Rudak, B. and Rulten, C. B. and Sahakian, V. and Salek, D. and Sanchez, D. A. and Santangelo, A. and Schlickeiser, R. and Schüssler, F. and Schulz, A. and Schwanke, U. and Schwarzburg, S. and Schwemmer, S. and Sol, H. and Spanier, F. and Spengler, G. and Spies, F. and Stawarz, Ł. and Steenkamp, R. and Stegmann, C. and Stinzing, F. and Stycz, K. and Sushch, I. and Tavernet, J. -P. and Tavernier, T. and Taylor, A. M. and Terrier, R. and Tluczykont, M. and Trichard, C. and Valerius, K. and van Eldik, C. and van Soelen, B. and Vasileiadis, G. and Veh, J. and Venter, C. and Viana, A. and Vincent, P. and Vink, J. and Völk, H. J. and Volpe, F. and Vorster, M. and Vuillaume, T. and Wagner, P. and Wagner, R. M. and Ward, M. and Weidinger, M. and Weitzel, Q. and White, R. and Wierzcholska, A. and Willmann, P. and Wörnlein, A. and Wouters, D. and Yang, R. and Zabalza, V. and Zaborov, D. and Zacharias, M. and Zdziarski, A. A. and Zech, A. and Zechlin, H. -S.},
abstractNote = {Very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray flaring activity of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PG 1553+113 has been detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes. Also, the flux of the source increased by a factor of 3 during the nights of 2012 April 26 and 27 with respect to the archival measurements with a hint of intra-night variability. No counterpart of this event has been detected in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope data. This pattern is consistent with VHE γ-ray flaring being caused by the injection of ultrarelativistic particles, emitting γ-rays at the highest energies. The dataset offers a unique opportunity to constrain the redshift of this source at z = 0.49 ± 0.04 using a novel method based on Bayesian statistics. In addition, the indication of intra-night variability is used to introduce a novel method to probe for a possible Lorentz invariance violation (LIV), and to set limits on the energy scale at which Quantum Gravity (QG) effects causing LIV may arise. For the subluminal case, the derived limits are EQG,1 > 4.10 × 1017 GeV and EQG,2 > 2.10 × 1010 GeV for linear and quadratic LIV effects, respectively.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/802/1/65},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 802,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Mar 24 00:00:00 EDT 2015},
month = {Tue Mar 24 00:00:00 EDT 2015}
}

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