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Title: Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010

Abstract

Because of its proximity, Mrk 421 is one of the best sources on which to study the nature of BL Lac objects. Its proximity allows us to characterize its broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Here, the goal is to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the broadband emission and the temporal evolution of Mrk 421. These mechanisms may also apply to more distant blazars that cannot be studied with the same level of detail. A flare occurring in March 2010 was observed for 13 consecutive days (from MJD 55 265 to MJD 55 277) with unprecedented wavelength coverage from radio to very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-rays with MAGIC, VERITAS, Whipple, Fermi-LAT, MAXI, RXTE, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and several optical and radio telescopes. We modeled the day-scale SEDs with one-zone and two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, investigated the physical parameters, and evaluated whether the observed broadband SED variability can be associated with variations in the relativistic particle population. As a result, the activity of Mrk 421 initially was high and then slowly decreased during the 13-day period. The flux variability was remarkable at the X-ray and VHE bands, but it was minor or not significant at the other bands.more » The variability in optical polarization was also minor. These observations revealed an almost linear correlation between the X-ray flux at the 2–10 keV band and the VHE γ-ray flux above 200 GeV, consistent with the γ-rays being produced by inverse-Compton scattering in the Klein-Nishina regime in the framework of SSC models. The one-zone SSC model can describe the SED of each day for the 13 consecutive days reasonably well, which once more shows the success of this standard theoretical scenario to describe the SEDs of VHE BL Lacs such as Mrk 421. This flaring activity is also very well described by a two-zone SSC model, where one zone is responsible for the quiescent emission, while the other smaller zone, which is spatially separated from the first, contributes to the daily variable emission occurring at X-rays and VHE γ-rays. The second blob is assumed to have a smaller volume and a narrow electron energy distribution with 3 × 104« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The MAGIC Collaboration; The VERITAS Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1355157
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 578; Journal ID: ISSN 0004-6361
Publisher:
EDP Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; galaxies: active; BL Lacertae objects: individual: Mrk 421; gamma rays: galaxies

Citation Formats

Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Boller, A., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Hughes, G., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Sun, S., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Steinke, B., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Zanin, R., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Biteau, J., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cerruti, M., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Cui, W., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Gyuk, G., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Lang, M. J., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Prokoph, H., Pueschel, E., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Wakely, S. P., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Buson, S., Finke, J., Villata, M., Raiteri, C., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Cesarini, A., Chen, W. P., Gurwell, M. A., Jorstad, S. G., Kimeridze, G. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Lin, H. C., McBreen, B., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Nikolashvili, M. G., Perri, M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Ros, J. A., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., Wehrle, A. E., and Jordan, B. Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424811.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Boller, A., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Hughes, G., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Sun, S., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Steinke, B., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Zanin, R., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Biteau, J., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cerruti, M., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Cui, W., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Gyuk, G., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Lang, M. J., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Prokoph, H., Pueschel, E., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Wakely, S. P., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Buson, S., Finke, J., Villata, M., Raiteri, C., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Cesarini, A., Chen, W. P., Gurwell, M. A., Jorstad, S. G., Kimeridze, G. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Lin, H. C., McBreen, B., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Nikolashvili, M. G., Perri, M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Ros, J. A., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., Wehrle, A. E., & Jordan, B. Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010. United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424811.
Aleksić, J., Ansoldi, S., Antonelli, L. A., Antoranz, P., Babic, A., Bangale, P., Barres de Almeida, U., Barrio, J. A., Becerra González, J., Bednarek, W., Bernardini, E., Biasuzzi, B., Biland, A., Blanch, O., Boller, A., Bonnefoy, S., Bonnoli, G., Borracci, F., Bretz, T., Carmona, E., Carosi, A., Colin, P., Colombo, E., Contreras, J. L., Cortina, J., Covino, S., Da Vela, P., Dazzi, F., De Angelis, A., De Caneva, G., De Lotto, B., de Oña Wilhelmi, E., Delgado Mendez, C., Dominis Prester, D., Dorner, D., Doro, M., Einecke, S., Eisenacher, D., Elsaesser, D., Fonseca, M. V., Font, L., Frantzen, K., Fruck, C., Galindo, D., García López, R. J., Garczarczyk, M., Garrido Terrats, D., Gaug, M., Godinović, N., González Muñoz, A., Gozzini, S. R., Hadasch, D., Hanabata, Y., Hayashida, M., Herrera, J., Hildebrand, D., Hose, J., Hrupec, D., Hughes, G., Idec, W., Kadenius, V., Kellermann, H., Knoetig, M. L., Kodani, K., Konno, Y., Krause, J., Kubo, H., Kushida, J., La Barbera, A., Lelas, D., Lewandowska, N., Lindfors, E., Lombardi, S., López, M., López-Coto, R., López-Oramas, A., Lorenz, E., Lozano, I., Makariev, M., Mallot, K., Maneva, G., Mankuzhiyil, N., Mannheim, K., Maraschi, L., Marcote, B., Mariotti, M., Martínez, M., Mazin, D., Menzel, U., Miranda, J. M., Mirzoyan, R., Moralejo, A., Munar-Adrover, P., Nakajima, D., Niedzwiecki, A., Nilsson, K., Nishijima, K., Noda, K., Orito, R., Overkemping, A., Paiano, S., Palatiello, M., Paneque, D., Paoletti, R., Paredes, J. M., Paredes-Fortuny, X., Persic, M., Prada Moroni, P. G., Prandini, E., Puljak, I., Reinthal, R., Rhode, W., Ribó, M., Rico, J., Rodriguez Garcia, J., Rügamer, S., Saito, T., Saito, K., Satalecka, K., Scalzotto, V., Scapin, V., Schultz, C., Schweizer, T., Sun, S., Shore, S. N., Sillanpää, A., Sitarek, J., Snidaric, I., Sobczynska, D., Spanier, F., Stamatescu, V., Stamerra, A., Steinbring, T., Steinke, B., Storz, J., Strzys, M., Takalo, L., Takami, H., Tavecchio, F., Temnikov, P., Terzić, T., Tescaro, D., Teshima, M., Thaele, J., Tibolla, O., Torres, D. F., Toyama, T., Treves, A., Uellenbeck, M., Vogler, P., Zanin, R., Archambault, S., Archer, A., Beilicke, M., Benbow, W., Berger, K., Bird, R., Biteau, J., Buckley, J. H., Bugaev, V., Cerruti, M., Chen, X., Ciupik, L., Collins-Hughes, E., Cui, W., Eisch, J. D., Falcone, A., Feng, Q., Finley, J. P., Fortin, P., Fortson, L., Furniss, A., Galante, N., Gillanders, G. H., Griffin, S., Gyuk, G., Håkansson, N., Holder, J., Johnson, C. A., Kaaret, P., Kar, P., Kertzman, M., Kieda, D., Lang, M. J., McArthur, S., McCann, A., Meagher, K., Millis, J., Moriarty, P., Ong, R. A., Otte, A. N., Perkins, J. S., Pichel, A., Pohl, M., Popkow, A., Prokoph, H., Pueschel, E., Ragan, K., Reyes, L. C., Reynolds, P. T., Richards, G. T., Roache, E., Rovero, A. C., Sembroski, G. H., Shahinyan, K., Staszak, D., Telezhinsky, I., Tucci, J. V., Tyler, J., Varlotta, A., Wakely, S. P., Welsing, R., Wilhelm, A., Williams, D. A., Buson, S., Finke, J., Villata, M., Raiteri, C., Aller, H. D., Aller, M. F., Cesarini, A., Chen, W. P., Gurwell, M. A., Jorstad, S. G., Kimeridze, G. N., Koptelova, E., Kurtanidze, O. M., Kurtanidze, S. O., Lähteenmäki, A., Larionov, V. M., Larionova, E. G., Lin, H. C., McBreen, B., Moody, J. W., Morozova, D. A., Marscher, A. P., Max-Moerbeck, W., Nikolashvili, M. G., Perri, M., Readhead, A. C. S., Richards, J. L., Ros, J. A., Sadun, A. C., Sakamoto, T., Sigua, L. A., Smith, P. S., Tornikoski, M., Troitsky, I. S., Wehrle, A. E., and Jordan, B. Wed . "Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010". United States. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201424811. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1355157.
@article{osti_1355157,
title = {Unprecedented study of the broadband emission of Mrk 421 during flaring activity in March 2010},
author = {Aleksić, J. and Ansoldi, S. and Antonelli, L. A. and Antoranz, P. and Babic, A. and Bangale, P. and Barres de Almeida, U. and Barrio, J. A. and Becerra González, J. and Bednarek, W. and Bernardini, E. and Biasuzzi, B. and Biland, A. and Blanch, O. and Boller, A. and Bonnefoy, S. and Bonnoli, G. and Borracci, F. and Bretz, T. and Carmona, E. and Carosi, A. and Colin, P. and Colombo, E. and Contreras, J. L. and Cortina, J. and Covino, S. and Da Vela, P. and Dazzi, F. and De Angelis, A. and De Caneva, G. and De Lotto, B. and de Oña Wilhelmi, E. and Delgado Mendez, C. and Dominis Prester, D. and Dorner, D. and Doro, M. and Einecke, S. and Eisenacher, D. and Elsaesser, D. and Fonseca, M. V. and Font, L. and Frantzen, K. and Fruck, C. and Galindo, D. and García López, R. J. and Garczarczyk, M. and Garrido Terrats, D. and Gaug, M. and Godinović, N. and González Muñoz, A. and Gozzini, S. R. and Hadasch, D. and Hanabata, Y. and Hayashida, M. and Herrera, J. and Hildebrand, D. and Hose, J. and Hrupec, D. and Hughes, G. and Idec, W. and Kadenius, V. and Kellermann, H. and Knoetig, M. L. and Kodani, K. and Konno, Y. and Krause, J. and Kubo, H. and Kushida, J. and La Barbera, A. and Lelas, D. and Lewandowska, N. and Lindfors, E. and Lombardi, S. and López, M. and López-Coto, R. and López-Oramas, A. and Lorenz, E. and Lozano, I. and Makariev, M. and Mallot, K. and Maneva, G. and Mankuzhiyil, N. and Mannheim, K. and Maraschi, L. and Marcote, B. and Mariotti, M. and Martínez, M. and Mazin, D. and Menzel, U. and Miranda, J. M. and Mirzoyan, R. and Moralejo, A. and Munar-Adrover, P. and Nakajima, D. and Niedzwiecki, A. and Nilsson, K. and Nishijima, K. and Noda, K. and Orito, R. and Overkemping, A. and Paiano, S. and Palatiello, M. and Paneque, D. and Paoletti, R. and Paredes, J. M. and Paredes-Fortuny, X. and Persic, M. and Prada Moroni, P. G. and Prandini, E. and Puljak, I. and Reinthal, R. and Rhode, W. and Ribó, M. and Rico, J. and Rodriguez Garcia, J. and Rügamer, S. and Saito, T. and Saito, K. and Satalecka, K. and Scalzotto, V. and Scapin, V. and Schultz, C. and Schweizer, T. and Sun, S. and Shore, S. N. and Sillanpää, A. and Sitarek, J. and Snidaric, I. and Sobczynska, D. and Spanier, F. and Stamatescu, V. and Stamerra, A. and Steinbring, T. and Steinke, B. and Storz, J. and Strzys, M. and Takalo, L. and Takami, H. and Tavecchio, F. and Temnikov, P. and Terzić, T. and Tescaro, D. and Teshima, M. and Thaele, J. and Tibolla, O. and Torres, D. F. and Toyama, T. and Treves, A. and Uellenbeck, M. and Vogler, P. and Zanin, R. and Archambault, S. and Archer, A. and Beilicke, M. and Benbow, W. and Berger, K. and Bird, R. and Biteau, J. and Buckley, J. H. and Bugaev, V. and Cerruti, M. and Chen, X. and Ciupik, L. and Collins-Hughes, E. and Cui, W. and Eisch, J. D. and Falcone, A. and Feng, Q. and Finley, J. P. and Fortin, P. and Fortson, L. and Furniss, A. and Galante, N. and Gillanders, G. H. and Griffin, S. and Gyuk, G. and Håkansson, N. and Holder, J. and Johnson, C. A. and Kaaret, P. and Kar, P. and Kertzman, M. and Kieda, D. and Lang, M. J. and McArthur, S. and McCann, A. and Meagher, K. and Millis, J. and Moriarty, P. and Ong, R. A. and Otte, A. N. and Perkins, J. S. and Pichel, A. and Pohl, M. and Popkow, A. and Prokoph, H. and Pueschel, E. and Ragan, K. and Reyes, L. C. and Reynolds, P. T. and Richards, G. T. and Roache, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Sembroski, G. H. and Shahinyan, K. and Staszak, D. and Telezhinsky, I. and Tucci, J. V. and Tyler, J. and Varlotta, A. and Wakely, S. P. and Welsing, R. and Wilhelm, A. and Williams, D. A. and Buson, S. and Finke, J. and Villata, M. and Raiteri, C. and Aller, H. D. and Aller, M. F. and Cesarini, A. and Chen, W. P. and Gurwell, M. A. and Jorstad, S. G. and Kimeridze, G. N. and Koptelova, E. and Kurtanidze, O. M. and Kurtanidze, S. O. and Lähteenmäki, A. and Larionov, V. M. and Larionova, E. G. and Lin, H. C. and McBreen, B. and Moody, J. W. and Morozova, D. A. and Marscher, A. P. and Max-Moerbeck, W. and Nikolashvili, M. G. and Perri, M. and Readhead, A. C. S. and Richards, J. L. and Ros, J. A. and Sadun, A. C. and Sakamoto, T. and Sigua, L. A. and Smith, P. S. and Tornikoski, M. and Troitsky, I. S. and Wehrle, A. E. and Jordan, B.},
abstractNote = {Because of its proximity, Mrk 421 is one of the best sources on which to study the nature of BL Lac objects. Its proximity allows us to characterize its broadband spectral energy distribution (SED). Here, the goal is to better understand the mechanisms responsible for the broadband emission and the temporal evolution of Mrk 421. These mechanisms may also apply to more distant blazars that cannot be studied with the same level of detail. A flare occurring in March 2010 was observed for 13 consecutive days (from MJD 55 265 to MJD 55 277) with unprecedented wavelength coverage from radio to very high energy (VHE; E> 100 GeV) γ-rays with MAGIC, VERITAS, Whipple, Fermi-LAT, MAXI, RXTE, Swift, GASP-WEBT, and several optical and radio telescopes. We modeled the day-scale SEDs with one-zone and two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) models, investigated the physical parameters, and evaluated whether the observed broadband SED variability can be associated with variations in the relativistic particle population. As a result, the activity of Mrk 421 initially was high and then slowly decreased during the 13-day period. The flux variability was remarkable at the X-ray and VHE bands, but it was minor or not significant at the other bands. The variability in optical polarization was also minor. These observations revealed an almost linear correlation between the X-ray flux at the 2–10 keV band and the VHE γ-ray flux above 200 GeV, consistent with the γ-rays being produced by inverse-Compton scattering in the Klein-Nishina regime in the framework of SSC models. The one-zone SSC model can describe the SED of each day for the 13 consecutive days reasonably well, which once more shows the success of this standard theoretical scenario to describe the SEDs of VHE BL Lacs such as Mrk 421. This flaring activity is also very well described by a two-zone SSC model, where one zone is responsible for the quiescent emission, while the other smaller zone, which is spatially separated from the first, contributes to the daily variable emission occurring at X-rays and VHE γ-rays. The second blob is assumed to have a smaller volume and a narrow electron energy distribution with 3 × 104},
doi = {10.1051/0004-6361/201424811},
journal = {Astronomy and Astrophysics},
issn = {0004-6361},
number = ,
volume = 578,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {5}
}

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Time-dependent modelling of the Markarian 501 X-ray and TeV gamma-ray data taken during 1997 March and April
journal, November 2002


The Swift X-Ray Telescope
journal, October 2005


Structured jets in TeV BL Lac objects and radiogalaxies: Implications for the observed properties
journal, March 2005


Maps of Dust Infrared Emission for Use in Estimation of Reddening and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Foregrounds
journal, June 1998

  • Schlegel, David J.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Davis, Marc
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 500, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/305772

Variations of the TeV energy spectrum at different flux levels of Mkn 421 observed with the HEGRA system of Cherenkov telescopes
journal, September 2002


VERITAS: the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System
journal, May 2002


Observation of Markarian 421 in TeV gamma rays over a 14-year time span
journal, February 2014


Observations of Markarian 421 with the MAGIC Telescope
journal, July 2007

  • Albert, J.; Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 663, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/518221

A jet model for the gamma-ray emitting blazar 3C 279
journal, September 1992

  • Maraschi, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Celotti, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 397
  • DOI: 10.1086/186531

An Analysis of the Synchrotron Self-Compton Model for the Multi--Wave Band Spectra of Blazars
journal, April 1996

  • Bloom, Steven D.; Marscher, Alan P.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
  • DOI: 10.1086/177092

The Environment and Distribution of Emitting Electrons as a Function of Source Activity in Markarian 421
journal, April 2011

  • Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Ansoldi, Stefano; Persic, Massimo
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 733, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/733/1/14

FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG
journal, March 2012

  • Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31

Gamma–hadron separation methods for the VERITAS array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes
journal, July 2006


Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 During Outburst
journal, August 2009


Turbulent, Extreme Multi-Zone Model for Simulating flux and Polarization Variability in Blazars
journal, December 2013


The Bulk Lorentz Factor Crisis of TeV Blazars: Evidence for an Inhomogeneous Pileup Energy Distribution?
journal, March 2006

  • Henri, Gilles; Sauge, Ludovic
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 640, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/500039

Extragalactic optical-infrared background radiation, its time evolution and the cosmic photon-photon opacity
journal, June 2008


Modeling the Extragalactic Background Light from Stars and dust
journal, February 2010


Detection of TeV photons from the active galaxy Markarian 421
journal, August 1992

  • Punch, M.; Akerlof, C. W.; Cawley, M. F.
  • Nature, Vol. 358, Issue 6386
  • DOI: 10.1038/358477a0

The inner jet of an active galactic nucleus as revealed by a radio-to-γ-ray outburst
journal, April 2008

  • Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; D’Arcangelo, Francesca D.
  • Nature, Vol. 452, Issue 7190
  • DOI: 10.1038/nature06895

TeV AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF Mrk 421 IN 2006-2008
journal, August 2011


Correcting for the Effects of Interstellar Extinction
journal, January 1999

  • Fitzpatrick, Edward L.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 111, Issue 755
  • DOI: 10.1086/316293

SWIFT X-RAY TELESCOPE MONITORING OF FERMI -LAT GAMMA-RAY SOURCES OF INTEREST
journal, July 2013

  • Stroh, Michael C.; Falcone, Abe D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 207, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/207/2/28

The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI: Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections
journal, September 2005


Simultaneous X-Ray and T[CLC]e[/CLC]V Observations of a Rapid Flare from Markarian 421
journal, December 1999

  • Maraschi, L.; Fossati, G.; Tavecchio, F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/312370

Signatures of synchrotron emission and of electron acceleration in the X-ray spectra of Mrk 421
journal, February 2007


Discovery of Spectral Variability of Markarian 421 at T[CLC]e[/CLC]V Energies
journal, August 2002

  • Krennrich, F.; Bond, I. H.; Bradbury, S. M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 575, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/342700

Constraints on the Physical Parameters of TeV Blazars
journal, December 1998

  • Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Maraschi, Laura; Ghisellini, Gabriele
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 509, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/306526

The potential of ground based arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. I. Determination of shower parameters
journal, April 1997


Photometric calibration of the Swift ultraviolet/optical telescope: Photometric calibration of the Swift UVOT
journal, December 2007


Extragalactic background light inferred from AEGIS galaxy-SED-type fractions: EBL from AEGIS galaxy-SED-type fractions
journal, October 2010


THE RADIO/GAMMA-RAY CONNECTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ERA OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE
journal, October 2011


Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the EGRET telescope on the Compton Observatory
journal, December 1992

  • Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 401
  • DOI: 10.1086/186671

FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION
journal, July 2011


A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring, and Spectral Evolution
journal, September 2005

  • Błażejowski, M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 630, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/431925

Time-dependent simulations of multiwavelength variability of the blazar Mrk 421 with a Monte Carlo multizone code: Time-dependent simulations of Mrk 421
journal, August 2011


Implications of cosmological gamma-ray absorption: II. Modification of gamma-ray spectra
journal, January 2004


TeV γ -ray light curve and energy spectrum of Mkn 421 during its 2001 flare as measured with HEGRA CT1
journal, November 2003


Host galaxy subtraction of TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects
journal, September 2007


On characterizing the variability properties of X-ray light curves from active galaxies
journal, November 2003


Fifteen years monitoring of extragalactic radio sources at 22, 37 and 87 GHz
journal, November 1998

  • Teräsranta, H.; Tornikoski, M.; Mujunen, A.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 132, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998297

X‐Ray Spectral Variability and Rapid Variability of the Soft X‐Ray Spectrum Seyfert 1 Galaxies Arakelian 564 and Ton S180
journal, April 2002

  • Edelson, Rick; Turner, T. J.; Pounds, Ken
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 568, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/323779

THE STUDY OF TeV VARIABILITY AND THE DUTY CYCLE OF Mrk 421 FROM 3 Yr OF OBSERVATIONS WITH THE MILAGRO OBSERVATORY
journal, February 2014


THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION OF FERMI BRIGHT BLAZARS
journal, May 2010


An Exceptional Radio Flare in Markarian 421
journal, January 2013


Model for the High-Energy Emission from Blazars
journal, October 1993

  • Dermer, Charles D.; Schlickeiser, Reinhard
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 416
  • DOI: 10.1086/173251

The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
journal, October 2005

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Kennedy, Thomas E.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Space Science Reviews, Vol. 120, Issue 3-4
  • DOI: 10.1007/s11214-005-5095-4

Decelerating Flows in TeV Blazars: A Resolution to the BL Lacertae-FR I Unification Problem
journal, August 2003

  • Georganopoulos, Markos; Kazanas, Demosthenes
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 594, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/378557

The power of blazar jets: The power of blazar jets
journal, February 2008


On the Momentum Diffusion of Radiating Ultrarelativistic Electrons in a Turbulent Magnetic Field
journal, July 2008

  • Stawarz, Łukasz; Petrosian, Vahe
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 681, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/588813

Spectra and linear polarizations of extragalactic variable sources at centimeter wavelengths
journal, November 1985

  • Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Latimer, G. E.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 59
  • DOI: 10.1086/191083

New methods of atmospheric Cherenkov imaging for gamma-ray astronomy. II. The differential position method
journal, May 1994


γ-rays as a diagnostic of the origin of core radiation in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei: γ-rays from LLAGNs
journal, March 2011


The multifrequency variability of Mrk 421
journal, October 2003


THE JETS OF TeV BLAZARS AT HIGHER RESOLUTION: 43 GHz AND POLARIMETRIC VLBA OBSERVATIONS FROM 2005 TO 2009
journal, October 2010


Galaxy Colors in Various Photometric Band Systems
journal, June 1995

  • Fukugita, M.; Shimasaku, K.; Ichikawa, T.
  • Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, Vol. 107
  • DOI: 10.1086/133643

Formation of very hard Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars in Leptonic Models
journal, September 2011


Synchrotron Self‐Compton Analysis of TeV X‐Ray‐Selected BL Lacertae Objects
journal, October 2008

  • Finke, Justin D.; Dermer, Charles D.; Böttcher, Markus
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/590900

The Likelihood Analysis of EGRET Data
journal, April 1996

  • Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
  • DOI: 10.1086/177068

Correlation between the TeV and X-ray emission in high-energy peaked BL Lac objects
journal, March 2005


Observation of Gamma Rays Greater than 10 T[CLC]e[/CLC]V from Markarian 421
journal, November 2002

  • Okumura, K.; Asahara, A.; Bicknell, G. V.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/344831

ASCA Observations of Seyfert 1 Galaxies. I. Data Analysis, Imaging, and Timing
journal, February 1997

  • Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 476, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/303600

Mrk 421 active state in 2008: the MAGIC view, simultaneous multi-wavelength observations and SSC model constrained
journal, June 2012


Synchrotron Self‐Compton Model for Rapid Nonthermal Flares in Blazars with Frequency‐dependent Time Lags
journal, October 2004

  • Sokolov, Andrei; Marscher, Alan P.; McHardy, Ian M.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 613, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/423165

Observations of Mkn 421 in 2004 with HESS at large zenith angles
journal, June 2005


THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON THE FERMI GAMMA-RAY SPACE TELESCOPE MISSION
journal, May 2009


Extremely rapid bursts of TeV photons from the active galaxy Markarian 421
journal, September 1996

  • Gaidos, J. A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Biller, S.
  • Nature, Vol. 383, Issue 6598
  • DOI: 10.1038/383319a0

Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar 1ES 1959+650 at a Low TeV Flux
journal, June 2008

  • Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghisellini, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 679, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/586731

XMM-Newton timing mode observations of Mrk 421
journal, November 2005


Simulations of superluminal radio sources
journal, July 1997

  • Komissarov, S. S.; Falle, S. A. E. G.
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 288, Issue 4
  • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/288.4.833

The Whipple Observatory 10m gamma-ray telescope, 1997–2006
journal, October 2007


Unfolding of differential energy spectra in the MAGIC experiment
journal, December 2007

  • Albert, J.; Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 583, Issue 2-3
  • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2007.09.048

STACEE Observations of Markarian 421 during an Extended Gamma-Ray Outburst
journal, November 2002

  • Boone, L. M.; Hinton, J. A.; Bramel, D.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1086/344815

Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in 2001 March: An Unprecedented View on the X‐Ray/TeV Correlated Variability
journal, April 2008

  • Fossati, G.; Buckley, J. H.; Bond, I. H.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/527311

Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in 2005-2006
journal, March 2009


BVR photometry of comparison stars in selected blazar fields : I. Photometric sequences for 10 BL Lacertae objects
journal, June 1998

  • Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Lanteri, L.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 130, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998415

Time-Dependent Models for Blazar Emission with the Second-Order Fermi Acceleration
journal, December 2013

  • Asano, Katsuaki; Takahara, Fumio; Kusunose, Masaaki
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 780, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/64

Performance of the MAGIC stereo system obtained with Crab Nebula data
journal, February 2012


The GASP-WEBT monitoring of 3C 454.3 during the 2008 optical-to-radio and γ-ray outburst
journal, August 2009


Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar Markarian 421 in 2002 December and 2003 January
journal, April 2006

  • Rebillot, P. F.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.
  • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1086/500653

BLAZARS IN THE FERMI ERA: THE OVRO 40 m TELESCOPE MONITORING PROGRAM
journal, May 2011

  • Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Pavlidou, Vasiliki
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 194, Issue 2
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/194/2/29

THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION
journal, October 2012

  • Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.
  • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 203, Issue 1
  • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4

Random Forests
journal, January 2001


Superorbital variability of X-ray and radio emission of Cyg X-1 - II. Dependence of the orbital modulation and spectral hardness on the superorbital phase
journal, September 2008

  • Poutanen, Juri; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ibragimov, Askar
  • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 389, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13666.x

Multifrequency monitoring of the blazar 0716+714 during the GASP-WEBT-AGILE campaign of 2007
journal, February 2008


BL Lac objects in the synchrotron proton blazar model
journal, March 2003


VERITAS: the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System
journal, June 1999


The Swift Ultra-Violet/Optical Telescope
conference, February 2004

  • Roming, Peter W. A.; Hunsberger, Sally D.; Mason, Keith O.
  • Optical Science and Technology, SPIE's 48th Annual Meeting, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.504554

BVR photometry of comparison stars in selected blazar fields : II. Photometric sequences for 9 quasars
journal, June 1998

  • Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Lanteri, L.
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 130, Issue 3
  • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998420

The Swift X-Ray Telescope
conference, February 2004

  • Burrows, David N.; Hill, Joanne E.; Nousek, John A.
  • Optical Science and Technology, SPIE's 48th Annual Meeting, SPIE Proceedings
  • DOI: 10.1117/12.504868

    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A Multiwavelength View of the TeV Blazar Markarian 421: Correlated Variability, Flaring, and Spectral Evolution
    journal, September 2005

    • Błażejowski, M.; Blaylock, G.; Bond, I. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 630, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/431925

    Long-term optical monitoring of TeV emitting blazars: I. Data analysis⋆
    journal, December 2018


    The Likelihood Analysis of EGRET Data
    journal, April 1996

    • Mattox, J. R.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 461
    • DOI: 10.1086/177068

    Observation of Gamma Rays Greater than 10 T[CLC]e[/CLC]V from Markarian 421
    journal, November 2002

    • Okumura, K.; Asahara, A.; Bicknell, G. V.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/344831

    Simulations of superluminal radio sources
    journal, July 1997

    • Komissarov, S. S.; Falle, S. A. E. G.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 288, Issue 4
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/288.4.833

    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS OF MARKARIAN 421: THE MISSING PIECE OF ITS SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION
    journal, July 2011


    Synchrotron Self‐Compton Analysis of TeV X‐Ray‐Selected BL Lacertae Objects
    journal, October 2008

    • Finke, Justin D.; Dermer, Charles D.; Böttcher, Markus
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 686, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/590900

    Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 During Outburst
    journal, August 2009


    The Leiden/Argentine/Bonn (LAB) Survey of Galactic HI: Final data release of the combined LDS and IAR surveys with improved stray-radiation corrections
    journal, September 2005


    The Environment and Distribution of Emitting Electrons as a Function of Source Activity in Markarian 421
    journal, April 2011

    • Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Ansoldi, Stefano; Persic, Massimo
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 733, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/0004-637x/733/1/14

    Superorbital variability of X-ray and radio emission of Cyg X-1 - II. Dependence of the orbital modulation and spectral hardness on the superorbital phase
    journal, September 2008

    • Poutanen, Juri; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Ibragimov, Askar
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 389, Issue 3
    • DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13666.x

    Modeling the Extragalactic Background Light from Stars and dust
    journal, February 2010


    Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in 2001 March: An Unprecedented View on the X‐Ray/TeV Correlated Variability
    journal, April 2008

    • Fossati, G.; Buckley, J. H.; Bond, I. H.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 677, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/527311

    Model for the High-Energy Emission from Blazars
    journal, October 1993

    • Dermer, Charles D.; Schlickeiser, Reinhard
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 416
    • DOI: 10.1086/173251

    Performance of the MAGIC stereo system obtained with Crab Nebula data
    journal, February 2012


    Implications of cosmological gamma-ray absorption: II. Modification of gamma-ray spectra
    journal, January 2004


    TeV γ -ray light curve and energy spectrum of Mkn 421 during its 2001 flare as measured with HEGRA CT1
    journal, November 2003


    Random Forests
    journal, January 2001


    The GASP-WEBT monitoring of 3C 454.3 during the 2008 optical-to-radio and γ-ray outburst
    journal, August 2009


    On characterizing the variability properties of X-ray light curves from active galaxies
    journal, November 2003


    The Whipple Observatory 10m gamma-ray telescope, 1997–2006
    journal, October 2007


    BVR photometry of comparison stars in selected blazar fields : I. Photometric sequences for 10 BL Lacertae objects
    journal, June 1998

    • Villata, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Lanteri, L.
    • Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series, Vol. 130, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1051/aas:1998415

    STACEE Observations of Markarian 421 during an Extended Gamma-Ray Outburst
    journal, November 2002

    • Boone, L. M.; Hinton, J. A.; Bramel, D.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 579, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/344815

    The power of blazar jets: The power of blazar jets
    journal, February 2008


    VERITAS: the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System
    journal, May 2002


    Multiwavelength Observations of Markarian 421 in 2005-2006
    journal, March 2009


    Structured jets in TeV BL Lac objects and radiogalaxies: Implications for the observed properties
    journal, March 2005


    Multifrequency monitoring of the blazar 0716+714 during the GASP-WEBT-AGILE campaign of 2007
    journal, February 2008


    Unfolding of differential energy spectra in the MAGIC experiment
    journal, December 2007

    • Albert, J.; Aliu, E.; Anderhub, H.
    • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, Vol. 583, Issue 2-3
    • DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2007.09.048

    FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE SECOND SOURCE CATALOG
    journal, March 2012

    • Nolan, P. L.; Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 199, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/199/2/31

    The Swift X-Ray Telescope
    journal, October 2005


    Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar Markarian 421 in 2002 December and 2003 January
    journal, April 2006

    • Rebillot, P. F.; Badran, H. M.; Blaylock, G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 641, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/500653

    Spectra and linear polarizations of extragalactic variable sources at centimeter wavelengths
    journal, November 1985

    • Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Latimer, G. E.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 59
    • DOI: 10.1086/191083

    The 2009 multiwavelength campaign on Mrk 421: Variability and correlation studies
    journal, April 2015


    Extremely rapid bursts of TeV photons from the active galaxy Markarian 421
    journal, September 1996

    • Gaidos, J. A.; Akerlof, C. W.; Biller, S.
    • Nature, Vol. 383, Issue 6598
    • DOI: 10.1038/383319a0

    XMM-Newton timing mode observations of Mrk 421
    journal, November 2005


    Observation of Markarian 421 in TeV gamma rays over a 14-year time span
    journal, February 2014


    The inner jet of an active galactic nucleus as revealed by a radio-to-γ-ray outburst
    journal, April 2008

    • Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; D’Arcangelo, Francesca D.
    • Nature, Vol. 452, Issue 7190
    • DOI: 10.1038/nature06895

    An Exceptional Radio Flare in Markarian 421
    journal, January 2013


    New methods of atmospheric Cherenkov imaging for gamma-ray astronomy. II. The differential position method
    journal, May 1994


    Observations of Mkn 421 in 2004 with HESS at large zenith angles
    journal, June 2005


    Variations of the TeV energy spectrum at different flux levels of Mkn 421 observed with the HEGRA system of Cherenkov telescopes
    journal, September 2002


    ASCA Observations of Seyfert 1 Galaxies. I. Data Analysis, Imaging, and Timing
    journal, February 1997

    • Nandra, K.; George, I. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 476, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/303600

    Formation of very hard Gamma-Ray Spectra of Blazars in Leptonic Models
    journal, September 2011


    THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON ORBIT: EVENT CLASSIFICATION, INSTRUMENT RESPONSE FUNCTIONS, AND CALIBRATION
    journal, October 2012

    • Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 203, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/203/1/4

    BLAZARS IN THE FERMI ERA: THE OVRO 40 m TELESCOPE MONITORING PROGRAM
    journal, May 2011

    • Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; Pavlidou, Vasiliki
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 194, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1088/0067-0049/194/2/29

    The Bulk Lorentz Factor Crisis of TeV Blazars: Evidence for an Inhomogeneous Pileup Energy Distribution?
    journal, March 2006

    • Henri, Gilles; Sauge, Ludovic
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 640, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1086/500039

    Extragalactic optical-infrared background radiation, its time evolution and the cosmic photon-photon opacity
    journal, June 2008


    Simultaneous Multiwavelength Observations of the Blazar 1ES 1959+650 at a Low TeV Flux
    journal, June 2008

    • Tagliaferri, G.; Foschini, L.; Ghisellini, G.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 679, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/586731

    Constraints on the Physical Parameters of TeV Blazars
    journal, December 1998

    • Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Maraschi, Laura; Ghisellini, Gabriele
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 509, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/306526

    THE JETS OF TeV BLAZARS AT HIGHER RESOLUTION: 43 GHz AND POLARIMETRIC VLBA OBSERVATIONS FROM 2005 TO 2009
    journal, October 2010


    Signatures of synchrotron emission and of electron acceleration in the X-ray spectra of Mrk 421
    journal, February 2007


    Simultaneous X-Ray and T[CLC]e[/CLC]V Observations of a Rapid Flare from Markarian 421
    journal, December 1999

    • Maraschi, L.; Fossati, G.; Tavecchio, F.
    • The Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 526, Issue 2
    • DOI: 10.1086/312370

    The potential of ground based arrays of imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. I. Determination of shower parameters
    journal, April 1997


    Time-dependent modelling of the Markarian 501 X-ray and TeV gamma-ray data taken during 1997 March and April
    journal, November 2002


    Host galaxy subtraction of TeV candidate BL Lacertae objects
    journal, September 2007


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