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Title: Search of extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo Galaxy cluster with Fermi-Lat

Abstract

Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of γ-ray telescopes. We use three years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of the nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3° that moreover is offset from the cluster center. Here, we demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. Furthermore, we also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential γ-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into $$b\bar{b},$$ assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for mDM lesssim 100 GeV. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude $$\langle \sigma v\rangle \sim 3\times {10}^{-26}\;{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\;{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$$ for m DM $$\lesssim$$ 40 GeV for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the γ-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than ~6%.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
Contributing Org.:
The Fermi-LAT Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1354899
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 812; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; gamma rays: general; gamma rays: individual (Virgo)

Citation Formats

Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jeltema, T. E., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainó, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schulz, A., Sgró, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Storm, E., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. Search of extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo Galaxy cluster with Fermi-Lat. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/159.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jeltema, T. E., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainó, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schulz, A., Sgró, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Storm, E., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., & Zimmer, S. Search of extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo Galaxy cluster with Fermi-Lat. United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/159.
Ackermann, M., Ajello, M., Albert, A., Atwood, W. B., Baldini, L., Barbiellini, G., Bastieri, D., Bechtol, K., Bellazzini, R., Bissaldi, E., Bloom, E. D., Bonino, R., Bottacini, E., Brandt, T. J., Bregeon, J., Bruel, P., Buehler, R., Buson, S., Caliandro, G. A., Cameron, R. A., Caputo, R., Caragiulo, M., Caraveo, P. A., Casandjian, J. M., Cavazzuti, E., Cecchi, C., Charles, E., Chekhtman, A., Chiaro, G., Ciprini, S., Cohen-Tanugi, J., Conrad, J., Cutini, S., D’Ammando, F., Angelis, A. de, Palma, F. de, Desiante, R., Digel, S. W., Venere, L. Di, Drell, P. S., Favuzzi, C., Fegan, S. J., Focke, W. B., Franckowiak, A., Fukazawa, Y., Funk, S., Fusco, P., Gargano, F., Gasparrini, D., Giglietto, N., Giordano, F., Giroletti, M., Glanzman, T., Godfrey, G., Gomez-Vargas, G. A., Grenier, I. A., Guiriec, S., Gustafsson, M., Hewitt, J. W., Hill, A. B., Horan, D., Jeltema, T. E., Jogler, T., Johnson, A. S., Kuss, M., Larsson, S., Latronico, L., Li, J., Li, L., Longo, F., Loparco, F., Lovellette, M. N., Lubrano, P., Maldera, S., Malyshev, D., Manfreda, A., Mayer, M., Mazziotta, M. N., Michelson, P. F., Mizuno, T., Monzani, M. E., Morselli, A., Moskalenko, I. V., Murgia, S., Nuss, E., Ohsugi, T., Orienti, M., Orlando, E., Ormes, J. F., Paneque, D., Perkins, J. S., Pesce-Rollins, M., Petrosian, V., Piron, F., Pivato, G., Porter, T. A., Rainó, S., Rando, R., Razzano, M., Reimer, A., Reimer, O., Sánchez-Conde, M., Schulz, A., Sgró, C., Siskind, E. J., Spada, F., Spandre, G., Spinelli, P., Storm, E., Tajima, H., Takahashi, H., Thayer, J. B., Torres, D. F., Tosti, G., Troja, E., Vianello, G., Wood, K. S., Wood, M., Zaharijas, G., and Zimmer, S. Tue . "Search of extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo Galaxy cluster with Fermi-Lat". United States. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/159. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354899.
@article{osti_1354899,
title = {Search of extended gamma-ray emission from the Virgo Galaxy cluster with Fermi-Lat},
author = {Ackermann, M. and Ajello, M. and Albert, A. and Atwood, W. B. and Baldini, L. and Barbiellini, G. and Bastieri, D. and Bechtol, K. and Bellazzini, R. and Bissaldi, E. and Bloom, E. D. and Bonino, R. and Bottacini, E. and Brandt, T. J. and Bregeon, J. and Bruel, P. and Buehler, R. and Buson, S. and Caliandro, G. A. and Cameron, R. A. and Caputo, R. and Caragiulo, M. and Caraveo, P. A. and Casandjian, J. M. and Cavazzuti, E. and Cecchi, C. and Charles, E. and Chekhtman, A. and Chiaro, G. and Ciprini, S. and Cohen-Tanugi, J. and Conrad, J. and Cutini, S. and D’Ammando, F. and Angelis, A. de and Palma, F. de and Desiante, R. and Digel, S. W. and Venere, L. Di and Drell, P. S. and Favuzzi, C. and Fegan, S. J. and Focke, W. B. and Franckowiak, A. and Fukazawa, Y. and Funk, S. and Fusco, P. and Gargano, F. and Gasparrini, D. and Giglietto, N. and Giordano, F. and Giroletti, M. and Glanzman, T. and Godfrey, G. and Gomez-Vargas, G. A. and Grenier, I. A. and Guiriec, S. and Gustafsson, M. and Hewitt, J. W. and Hill, A. B. and Horan, D. and Jeltema, T. E. and Jogler, T. and Johnson, A. S. and Kuss, M. and Larsson, S. and Latronico, L. and Li, J. and Li, L. and Longo, F. and Loparco, F. and Lovellette, M. N. and Lubrano, P. and Maldera, S. and Malyshev, D. and Manfreda, A. and Mayer, M. and Mazziotta, M. N. and Michelson, P. F. and Mizuno, T. and Monzani, M. E. and Morselli, A. and Moskalenko, I. V. and Murgia, S. and Nuss, E. and Ohsugi, T. and Orienti, M. and Orlando, E. and Ormes, J. F. and Paneque, D. and Perkins, J. S. and Pesce-Rollins, M. and Petrosian, V. and Piron, F. and Pivato, G. and Porter, T. A. and Rainó, S. and Rando, R. and Razzano, M. and Reimer, A. and Reimer, O. and Sánchez-Conde, M. and Schulz, A. and Sgró, C. and Siskind, E. J. and Spada, F. and Spandre, G. and Spinelli, P. and Storm, E. and Tajima, H. and Takahashi, H. and Thayer, J. B. and Torres, D. F. and Tosti, G. and Troja, E. and Vianello, G. and Wood, K. S. and Wood, M. and Zaharijas, G. and Zimmer, S.},
abstractNote = {Galaxy clusters are one of the prime sites to search for dark matter (DM) annihilation signals. Depending on the substructure of the DM halo of a galaxy cluster and the cross sections for DM annihilation channels, these signals might be detectable by the latest generation of γ-ray telescopes. We use three years of Fermi-Large Area Telescope data, which are the most suitable for searching for very extended emission in the vicinity of the nearby Virgo galaxy cluster. Our analysis reveals statistically significant extended emission which can be well characterized by a uniformly emitting disk profile with a radius of 3° that moreover is offset from the cluster center. Here, we demonstrate that the significance of this extended emission strongly depends on the adopted interstellar emission model (IEM) and is most likely an artifact of our incomplete description of the IEM in this region. Furthermore, we also search for and find new point source candidates in the region. We then derive conservative upper limits on the velocity-averaged DM pair annihilation cross section from Virgo. We take into account the potential γ-ray flux enhancement due to DM sub-halos and its complex morphology as a merging cluster. For DM annihilating into $b\bar{b},$ assuming a conservative sub-halo model setup, we find limits that are between 1 and 1.5 orders of magnitude above the expectation from the thermal cross section for mDM lesssim 100 GeV. In a more optimistic scenario, we exclude $\langle \sigma v\rangle \sim 3\times {10}^{-26}\;{\mathrm{cm}}^{3}\;{{\rm{s}}}^{-1}$ for mDM $\lesssim$ 40 GeV for the same channel. Finally, we derive upper limits on the γ-ray-flux produced by hadronic cosmic-ray interactions in the inter cluster medium. We find that the volume-averaged cosmic-ray-to-thermal pressure ratio is less than ~6%.},
doi = {10.1088/0004-637X/812/2/159},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
issn = {1538-4357},
number = 2,
volume = 812,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}

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    Deep observation of the NGC 1275 region with MAGIC: search of diffuse γ -ray emission from cosmic rays in the Perseus cluster
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    Search for Extended Gamma-Ray Emission from the Virgo Galaxy Cluster with FERMI -LAT
    text, January 2015

    • Ackermann, Markus; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2015-05283

    Novel gamma-ray signatures of PeV-scale dark matter
    journal, April 2018

    • Blanco, Carlos; Harding, J. Patrick; Hooper, Dan
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 04
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/04/060

    Homeopathic Dark Matter, or how diluted heavy substances produce high energy cosmic rays
    journal, February 2019

    • Cirelli, Marco; Gouttenoire, Yann; Petraki, Kalliopi
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 02
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/02/014

    Deep observation of the NGC 1275 region with MAGIC: search of diffuse γ -ray emission from cosmic rays in the Perseus cluster
    journal, April 2016


    Novel gamma-ray signatures of PeV-scale dark matter
    journal, April 2018

    • Blanco, Carlos; Harding, J. Patrick; Hooper, Dan
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 04
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/04/060

    Homeopathic Dark Matter, or how diluted heavy substances produce high energy cosmic rays
    journal, February 2019

    • Cirelli, Marco; Gouttenoire, Yann; Petraki, Kalliopi
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 02
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/02/014

    Impeded Dark Matter
    journal, December 2016

    • Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia; Slatyer, Tracy R.
    • Journal of High Energy Physics, Vol. 2016, Issue 12
    • DOI: 10.1007/jhep12(2016)033

    Ruling out dark matter interpretation of the galactic GeV excess by gamma-ray data of galaxy clusters
    journal, November 2017


    A review of indirect searches for particle dark matter
    journal, June 2016


    Searching for dark matter annihilation from individual halos: uncertainties, scatter and signal-to-noise ratios
    journal, August 2018

    • Okoli, Chiamaka; Taylor, James E.; Afshordi, Niayesh
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2018, Issue 08
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2018/08/019

    Unidentified gamma-ray sources as targets for indirect dark matter detection with the Fermi -Large Area Telescope
    journal, July 2019

    • Coronado-Blázquez, Javier; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Domínguez, Alberto
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 07
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/07/020

    Spectral and spatial analysis of the dark matter subhalo candidates among Fermi Large Area Telescope unidentified sources
    journal, November 2019

    • Coronado-Blázquez, Javier; Sánchez-Conde, Miguel A.; Mauro, Mattia Di
    • Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Vol. 2019, Issue 11
    • DOI: 10.1088/1475-7516/2019/11/045

    A plethora of diffuse steep spectrum radio sources in Abell 2034 revealed by LOFAR
    journal, March 2016

    • Shimwell, T. W.; Luckin, J.; Brüggen, M.
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 459, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stw661

    Milky Way globular clusters in γ-rays: analysing the dynamical formation of millisecond pulsars
    journal, March 2019

    • de Menezes, Raniere; Cafardo, Fabio; Nemmen, Rodrigo
    • Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 486, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.1093/mnras/stz898

    Realistic estimation for the detectability of dark matter subhalos using Fermi-LAT catalogs
    journal, September 2017


    Homeopathic Dark Matter, or how diluted heavy substances produce high energy cosmic rays
    text, January 2019

    • Cirelli, Marco; Gouttenoire, Yann; Petraki, Kalliopi
    • Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, DESY, Hamburg
    • DOI: 10.3204/pubdb-2019-03958

    CROSS-CORRELATING THE γ -RAY SKY WITH CATALOGS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS
    journal, January 2017

    • Branchini, Enzo; Camera, Stefano; Cuoco, Alessandro
    • The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series, Vol. 228, Issue 1
    • DOI: 10.3847/1538-4365/228/1/8