skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report

Abstract

Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in land surface, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. Some of the land-atmosphere-cloud interactions that can be studied using HI-SCALE data are shown in Figure 1. HI-SCALE consisted of two 4-week intensive operation periods (IOPs), one in the spring (April 24-May 21) and the other in the late summer (August 28-September 24) of 2016, to take advantage of different stages of the plant lifecycle, the distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiationmore » Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. As expected, satellite measurements indicated that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was much “greener” in the vicinity of the SGP site during the spring IOP than the late summer IOP as a result of winter wheat maturing in the spring and being harvested in the early summer. As shown in Figure 2, temperatures were cooler than average and soil moisture was high during the spring IOP, while temperatures were warmer than average and soil moisture was low during the late summer IOP. These factors likely influence the occurrence and lifecycle of shallow clouds. Most of the instrumentation was deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The specific instrumentation is listed in Table 1. The team of scientists participating in the G-1 flights were from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the University of Washington. Routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface were supplemented with aerosol microphysical properties measurements, with support from the DOE Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) User Facility and the Atmospheric System Radiation (ASR) program. This included deploying a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure aerosol size distribution, a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) to measure volatile organic compounds, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure bulk aerosol composition, and the single-particle laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) to measure single-particle aerosol composition at the SGP site Guest Instrumentation Facility. In this way, characterization of aerosol properties at the surface and on the G-1 were consistent. In addition, the HI-SCALE: Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors add-on campaign was conducted during the second IOP in which several state-of-the-science chemical ionization mass spectrometers were deployed to measure nanoparticle composition and precursors. Scientists participating in the surface measurements were from PNNL, BNL, University California–Irvine, Augsberg College, Colorado University, Aerodyne Inc., and Aerosol Dynamics Inc.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5]
  1. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
  3. University of California-Irvine
  4. National Severe Storms Laboratory
  5. Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program, Washington, DC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
Contributing Org.:
NOAA; University of California-Irvine; Columbia University
OSTI Identifier:
1354732
Report Number(s):
DOE/SC-ARM-17-014
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-7601830
Resource Type:
Program Document
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; HI-SCALE campaign; Southern Great Plains; convection; ARM Aerial Facility; aerosol mass spectrometer; scanning mobility particle sizer; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index; cloud condensation nuclei; proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer; single-particle laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer; passive cavity aerosol spectrometer probe

Citation Formats

Fast, J. D., Berg, L. K., Burleyson, C., Fan, J., Feng, Z., Hagos, S., Huang, M., Guenther, A., Laskin, A., Ovchinnikov, M., Shilling, J., Shrivastava, M., Xiao, H., Zaveri, R., Zelenyuk-Imre, A., Kuang, C., Wang, J., Smith, J., Turner, D., and Gentine, P. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Fast, J. D., Berg, L. K., Burleyson, C., Fan, J., Feng, Z., Hagos, S., Huang, M., Guenther, A., Laskin, A., Ovchinnikov, M., Shilling, J., Shrivastava, M., Xiao, H., Zaveri, R., Zelenyuk-Imre, A., Kuang, C., Wang, J., Smith, J., Turner, D., & Gentine, P. Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report. United States.
Fast, J. D., Berg, L. K., Burleyson, C., Fan, J., Feng, Z., Hagos, S., Huang, M., Guenther, A., Laskin, A., Ovchinnikov, M., Shilling, J., Shrivastava, M., Xiao, H., Zaveri, R., Zelenyuk-Imre, A., Kuang, C., Wang, J., Smith, J., Turner, D., and Gentine, P. Mon . "Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354732.
@article{osti_1354732,
title = {Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) Field Campaign Report},
author = {Fast, J. D. and Berg, L. K. and Burleyson, C. and Fan, J. and Feng, Z. and Hagos, S. and Huang, M. and Guenther, A. and Laskin, A. and Ovchinnikov, M. and Shilling, J. and Shrivastava, M. and Xiao, H. and Zaveri, R. and Zelenyuk-Imre, A. and Kuang, C. and Wang, J. and Smith, J. and Turner, D. and Gentine, P.},
abstractNote = {Cumulus convection is an important component in the atmospheric radiation budget and hydrologic cycle over the southern Great Plains and over many regions of the world, particularly during the summertime growing season when intense turbulence induced by surface radiation couples the land surface to clouds. Current convective cloud parameterizations contain uncertainties resulting in part from insufficient coincident data that couples cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to inhomogeneities in land surface, boundary layer, and aerosol properties. The Holistic Interactions of Shallow Clouds, Aerosols, and Land-Ecosystems (HI-SCALE) campaign was designed to provide a detailed set of measurements that are needed to obtain a more complete understanding of the lifecycle of shallow clouds by coupling cloud macrophysical and microphysical properties to land surface properties, ecosystems, and aerosols. Some of the land-atmosphere-cloud interactions that can be studied using HI-SCALE data are shown in Figure 1. HI-SCALE consisted of two 4-week intensive operation periods (IOPs), one in the spring (April 24-May 21) and the other in the late summer (August 28-September 24) of 2016, to take advantage of different stages of the plant lifecycle, the distribution of “greenness” for various types of vegetation in the vicinity of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains (SGP) site, and aerosol properties that vary during the growing season. As expected, satellite measurements indicated that the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was much “greener” in the vicinity of the SGP site during the spring IOP than the late summer IOP as a result of winter wheat maturing in the spring and being harvested in the early summer. As shown in Figure 2, temperatures were cooler than average and soil moisture was high during the spring IOP, while temperatures were warmer than average and soil moisture was low during the late summer IOP. These factors likely influence the occurrence and lifecycle of shallow clouds. Most of the instrumentation was deployed on the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF) Gulfstream 1 (G-1) aircraft, including those that measure atmospheric turbulence, cloud water content and drop size distributions, aerosol precursor gases, aerosol chemical composition and size distributions, and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. The specific instrumentation is listed in Table 1. The team of scientists participating in the G-1 flights were from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the University of Washington. Routine ARM aerosol measurements made at the surface were supplemented with aerosol microphysical properties measurements, with support from the DOE Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) User Facility and the Atmospheric System Radiation (ASR) program. This included deploying a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) to measure aerosol size distribution, a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) to measure volatile organic compounds, an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure bulk aerosol composition, and the single-particle laser ablation time-of-flight mass spectrometer (SPLAT II) to measure single-particle aerosol composition at the SGP site Guest Instrumentation Facility. In this way, characterization of aerosol properties at the surface and on the G-1 were consistent. In addition, the HI-SCALE: Nanoparticle Composition and Precursors add-on campaign was conducted during the second IOP in which several state-of-the-science chemical ionization mass spectrometers were deployed to measure nanoparticle composition and precursors. Scientists participating in the surface measurements were from PNNL, BNL, University California–Irvine, Augsberg College, Colorado University, Aerodyne Inc., and Aerosol Dynamics Inc.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1354732}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {5}
}

Program Document:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item.

Save / Share: