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Title: Influence of chemistry, interfacial width, and non-isothermal conditions on spatially heterogeneous activated relaxation and elasticity in glass-forming free standing films

Abstract

Here, we employ the Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation (ECNLE) theory of activated relaxation to study several questions in free standing thin films of glass-forming molecular and polymer liquids. The influence of non-universal chemical aspects on dynamical confinement effects is found to be relatively weak, but with the caveat that for the systems examined, the bulk ECNLE polymer theory does not predict widely varying fragilities. Allowing the film model to have a realistic vapor interfacial width significantly enhances the reduction of the film-averaged glass transition temperature, T g, in a manner that depends on whether a dynamic or pseudo-thermodynamic averaging of the spatial mobility gradient is adopted. The nature of film thickness effects on the spatial profiles of the alpha relaxation time and elastic modulus is studied under non-isothermal conditions and contrasted with the corresponding isothermal behavior. Modest differences are found if a film-thickness dependent T g is defined in a dynamical manner. But, adopting a pseudo-thermodynamic measure of T g leads to a qualitatively new form of the alpha relaxation time gradient where highly mobile layers near the film surface coexist with strongly vitrified regions in the film interior. Consequently, the film-averaged shear modulus can increase with decreasing filmmore » thickness, despite the T g reduction and presence of a mobile surface layer. Such a behavior stands in qualitative contrast to the predicted mechanical softening under isothermal conditions. Spatial gradients of the elastic modulus are studied as a function of temperature, film thickness, probing frequency, and experimental protocol, and a rich behavior is found.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Chemistry
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1354668
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Chemical Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 146; Journal Issue: 20; Journal ID: ISSN 0021-9606
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Mirigian, Stephen, and Schweizer, Kenneth S. Influence of chemistry, interfacial width, and non-isothermal conditions on spatially heterogeneous activated relaxation and elasticity in glass-forming free standing films. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4974766.
Mirigian, Stephen, & Schweizer, Kenneth S. Influence of chemistry, interfacial width, and non-isothermal conditions on spatially heterogeneous activated relaxation and elasticity in glass-forming free standing films. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4974766.
Mirigian, Stephen, and Schweizer, Kenneth S. Thu . "Influence of chemistry, interfacial width, and non-isothermal conditions on spatially heterogeneous activated relaxation and elasticity in glass-forming free standing films". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4974766. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1354668.
@article{osti_1354668,
title = {Influence of chemistry, interfacial width, and non-isothermal conditions on spatially heterogeneous activated relaxation and elasticity in glass-forming free standing films},
author = {Mirigian, Stephen and Schweizer, Kenneth S.},
abstractNote = {Here, we employ the Elastically Collective Nonlinear Langevin Equation (ECNLE) theory of activated relaxation to study several questions in free standing thin films of glass-forming molecular and polymer liquids. The influence of non-universal chemical aspects on dynamical confinement effects is found to be relatively weak, but with the caveat that for the systems examined, the bulk ECNLE polymer theory does not predict widely varying fragilities. Allowing the film model to have a realistic vapor interfacial width significantly enhances the reduction of the film-averaged glass transition temperature, Tg, in a manner that depends on whether a dynamic or pseudo-thermodynamic averaging of the spatial mobility gradient is adopted. The nature of film thickness effects on the spatial profiles of the alpha relaxation time and elastic modulus is studied under non-isothermal conditions and contrasted with the corresponding isothermal behavior. Modest differences are found if a film-thickness dependent Tg is defined in a dynamical manner. But, adopting a pseudo-thermodynamic measure of Tg leads to a qualitatively new form of the alpha relaxation time gradient where highly mobile layers near the film surface coexist with strongly vitrified regions in the film interior. Consequently, the film-averaged shear modulus can increase with decreasing film thickness, despite the Tg reduction and presence of a mobile surface layer. Such a behavior stands in qualitative contrast to the predicted mechanical softening under isothermal conditions. Spatial gradients of the elastic modulus are studied as a function of temperature, film thickness, probing frequency, and experimental protocol, and a rich behavior is found.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4974766},
journal = {Journal of Chemical Physics},
number = 20,
volume = 146,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Feb 02 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Thu Feb 02 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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Cited by: 6 works
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Works referenced in this record:

A buckling-based metrology for measuring the elastic moduli of polymeric thin films
journal, July 2004

  • Stafford, Christopher M.; Harrison, Christopher; Beers, Kathryn L.
  • Nature Materials, Vol. 3, Issue 8, p. 545-550
  • DOI: 10.1038/nmat1175