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Title: Prediction of recrystallization times in electroplated copper thin films

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1354487
Report Number(s):
BNL-113004-2016-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 0040-6090
DOE Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Thin Solid Films; Journal Volume: 615
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Treger, Mikhail, Witt, Christian, Cabral, Cyril, Murray, Conal, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Rosenberg, Robert, Eisenbraun, Eric, and Noyan, I. C. Prediction of recrystallization times in electroplated copper thin films. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2016.06.056.
Treger, Mikhail, Witt, Christian, Cabral, Cyril, Murray, Conal, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Rosenberg, Robert, Eisenbraun, Eric, & Noyan, I. C. Prediction of recrystallization times in electroplated copper thin films. United States. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2016.06.056.
Treger, Mikhail, Witt, Christian, Cabral, Cyril, Murray, Conal, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Rosenberg, Robert, Eisenbraun, Eric, and Noyan, I. C. 2016. "Prediction of recrystallization times in electroplated copper thin films". United States. doi:10.1016/j.tsf.2016.06.056.
@article{osti_1354487,
title = {Prediction of recrystallization times in electroplated copper thin films},
author = {Treger, Mikhail and Witt, Christian and Cabral, Cyril and Murray, Conal and Jordan-Sweet, Jean and Rosenberg, Robert and Eisenbraun, Eric and Noyan, I. C.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1016/j.tsf.2016.06.056},
journal = {Thin Solid Films},
number = ,
volume = 615,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}
  • Concurrent in-situ four-point probe resistivity and high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to characterize room temperature recrystallization in electroplated Cu thin films. The x-ray data were used to obtain the variation with time of the integrated intensities and the peak-breadth from the Cu 111 and 200 reflections of the transforming grains. The variation of the integrated intensity and resistivity data with time was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. For both 111-textured and non-textured electroplated Cu films, four-point probe resistivity measurements yielded shorter transformation times than the values obtained from the integrated intensities of the corresponding Cu 111more » reflections. In addition, the JMAK exponents fitted to the resistivity data were significantly smaller. These discrepancies could be explained by considering the different material volumes from which resistivity and diffraction signals originated, and the physical processes which linked these signals to the changes in the evolving microstructure. Based on these issues, calibration of the resistivity analysis with direct structural characterization techniques is recommended.« less
  • Time-resolved in situ x-ray diffraction measurements were used to study the room-temperature recrystallization kinetics of electroplated copper thin films with thicknesses between 400 and 1000 nm. The thinnest films exhibited limited recrystallization and subsequent growth of grains, while recrystallized grains in the thicker films grew until all as-plated microstructure was consumed. For all films, recrystallized grains that belonged to the majority texture component, <111>, started growing after the shortest incubation time. These grains exhibited volumetric growth until they achieved the film thickness. After this point the growth mode became planar, with the <111>-type grains growing in the plane of themore » film. Grains with the <111> direction normal to the film surface started growing after the <111>-type grains switched to planar growth. However, the planar growth of this texture component finished at the same time as the growth of the <111> grains. Profile fitting of the 111 peak permitted the separation of the diffraction signals from recrystallized and as-plated grain populations. The average strains in these two populations, calculated from the peak position of the corresponding {l_brace}111{r_brace} reflections, were different, indicating a heterogeneous stress state within this texture component. The increasing volume fraction of recrystallized <111> grains with time was monitored via the variation in the diffracted intensity. This variation could be represented by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model.« less
  • Positron annihilation was used to probe vacancy-type defects in electroplated Cu films deposited on Ta/SiO{sub 2}/Si. Doppler broadening spectra of the annihilation radiation were measured for the Cu films during grain growth at room temperature (i.e., self-annealing). The line-shape parameter S increased during self-annealing, and the observed time dependence of S was well described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov kinetics. After self-annealing, the values of S were found to be larger than the S value for annealed pure Cu, suggesting that the positrons annihilated from the trapped state by vacancy-type defects in grains. From a comparison with the results of previous isochronalmore » annealing experiments, the major species of defects introduced during self-annealing was found to be vacancy clusters. The size of these defects increased, but their concentration decreased, with increasing film thickness. In thicker Cu films, an enhanced flow of atoms and subsequent rapid grain growth cause such defect behavior.« less