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Title: Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste

Abstract

Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1353327
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-121413
Journal ID: ISSN 2168-0485; BM0102060
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering; Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Maddi, Balakrishna, Panisko, Ellen, Wietsma, Thomas, Lemmon, Teresa, Swita, Marie, Albrecht, Karl, and Howe, Daniel. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02367.
Maddi, Balakrishna, Panisko, Ellen, Wietsma, Thomas, Lemmon, Teresa, Swita, Marie, Albrecht, Karl, & Howe, Daniel. Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste. United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02367.
Maddi, Balakrishna, Panisko, Ellen, Wietsma, Thomas, Lemmon, Teresa, Swita, Marie, Albrecht, Karl, and Howe, Daniel. Fri . "Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste". United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02367.
@article{osti_1353327,
title = {Quantitative Characterization of Aqueous Byproducts from Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Municipal Wastes, Food Industry Wastes, and Biomass Grown on Waste},
author = {Maddi, Balakrishna and Panisko, Ellen and Wietsma, Thomas and Lemmon, Teresa and Swita, Marie and Albrecht, Karl and Howe, Daniel},
abstractNote = {Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is a viable thermochemical process for converting wet solid wastes into biocrude which can be hydroprocessed to liquid transportation fuel blendstocks and specialty chemicals. The aqueous byproduct from HTL contains significant amounts (20 to 50%) of the feed carbon, which must be used to enhance economic sustainability of the process on an industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from HTL of industrial and municipal waste were characterized using a wide variety of analytical approaches. Organic chemical compounds present in these aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were employed to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species, in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of these aqueous byproducts, also were quantified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported, and the significance of these results is discussed in detail.},
doi = {10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02367},
journal = {ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering},
number = 3,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Jan 27 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Aqueous streams generated from hydrothermal liquefaction contain approximately 30% of the total carbon present from the algal feed. Hence, this aqueous carbon must be utilized to produce liquid fuels and/or specialty chemicals for economic sustainability of hydrothermal liquefaction on industrial scale. In this study, aqueous fractions produced from the hydrothermal liquefaction of fresh water and saline water algal cultures were analyzed using a wide variety of analytical instruments to determine their compositional characteristics. This study will also inform researchers designing catalysts for down-stream processing such as high-pressure catalytic conversion of organics in aqueous phase, catalytic hydrothermal gasification, and biological conversions.more » Organic chemical compounds present in all eight aqueous fractions were identified using two-dimensional gas chromatography equipped with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Identified compounds include organic acids, nitrogen compounds and aldehydes/ketones. Conventional gas chromatography and liquid chromatography methods were utilized to quantify the identified compounds. Inorganic species in the aqueous stream of hydrothermal liquefaction of algae were identified using ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. The concentrations of organic chemical compounds and inorganic species are reported. The amount quantified carbon ranged from 45 to 72 % of total carbon in the aqueous fractions.« less
  • In this study, R. opacus PD630, R. jostii RHA1, R. jostii RHA1 VanA-, and their co-culture were employed to convert hydrothermal liquefaction aqueous waste (HTLAW) into lipids. After 11 days, the COD reduction of algal-HTLAW reached 93.4% and 92.7% by R. jostii RHA1 and its mutant VanA-, respectively. Woody-HTLAW promoted lipid accumulation of 0.43 g lipid/g cell dry weight in R. opacus PD630 cells. Additionally, the total number of chemicals in HTLAW decreased by over 1/3 after 7 days of coculture, and 0.10 g/L and 0.46 g/L lipids were incrementally accumulated in the cellular mass during the fermentation of wood-more » and algal-HTLAW, respectively. The GC-MS data supported that different metabolism pathways were followed when these Rhodococci strains degraded algae- and woody-HTLAW. These results indicated promising potential of bioconversion of under-utilized carbon and toxic compounds in HTLAW into useful products by selected Rhodococci.« less
  • In this study the aqueous phases resulting from the hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass and the hydrotreatment of fast pyrolysis bio-oils were analyzed via TC, COD, GC-MS, GC-FID, HPLC, and ICP-OES to determine the organic and inorganic species present and the quantitative amounts of each. This work is necessary to address a significant knowledge gap in the literature related to the aqueous phases from thermochemical processes. Results showed that water from the hydrotreatment of eight different bio-oils contained less than 1 wt% total carbon, in many cases less than 0.2%. Negligible organic carbon was observed. Hydrothermal liquefaction samples contained between 1-2more » wt% carbon, accounting for 34 – 45% of the total carbon sent to the reactor. The majority of this carbon was present as acids, with glycolic acid and acetic acid having the highest concentrations. Alcohols, specifically methanol and ethanol, were also present. Numerous ketones were observed, consisting of mainly acetone and cyclopenta-ones. The amount of the total carbon identified and quantified in the HTL samples ranged from 64 – 82%. Inorganic species present in the HT samples were sodium, silicon, and sulfur. The highest levels of sulfur were observed in the grasses and agricultural residue (corn stover). The HTL samples exhibited much higher inorganic content, with very high levels of sodium and potassium. Alkali and alkali earth metals, as well as sulfur, were also present at levels high enough to raise concerns for the use of catalysts in downstream upgrading or reforming processes.« less