skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer

Abstract

Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [M II(itao)(SO 4)(H 2O) 0,1] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me 6tren)(SO 4)] exhibit well-defined preedge transitions at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal–sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO 4)] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO 4)] but not of [Cu(Me 6tren)(SO 4)] uniquely exhibits a weak transition at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge. Preedge transitions also appear in the sulfur K-edge XAS of crystalline [M II(SO 4)(H 2O)] (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, but not Zn) and in sulfates of higher-valent early transition metals. Ground-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations show that charge transfer from coordinated sulfate to paramagnetic late transition metals produces spin polarization that differentially mixes the spin-up (α) and spin-down (β) spin orbitals of the sulfate ligand, inducing negative spin density at the sulfate sulfur. Ground-state DFT calculations show that sulfur 3p character then mixes into metal 4s and 4p valence orbitals and various combinations of ligand antibonding orbitals, producing measurable sulfur XAS transitions. TDDFT calculations confirm themore » presence of XAS preedge features 0.5–2 eV below the rising sulfur K-edge energy. The 2472.1 eV feature arises when orbitals at lower energy than the frontier occupied orbitals with S 3p character mix with the copper(II) electron hole. Transmission of spin polarization and thus of radical character through several bonds between the sulfur and electron hole provides a new mechanism for the counterintuitive appearance of preedge transitions in the XAS spectra of transition-metal oxoanion ligands in the absence of any direct metal–absorber bond. The 2472.1 eV transition is evidence for further radicalization from copper(II), which extends across a hydrogen-bond bridge between sulfate and the itao ligand and involves orbitals at energies below the frontier set. In conclusion, this electronic structure feature provides a direct spectroscopic confirmation of the through-bond electron-transfer mechanism of redox-active metalloproteins.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  2. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Momentum Chemical Structure-Function Lab., Budapest (Hungary)
  3. Federal Inst. of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). ETH-Zentrum, Lab. fuer Kristallographie
  4. National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan City (Taiwan). Dept. of Chemistry
  5. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL)
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23); National Institutes of Health (NIH)
OSTI Identifier:
1353168
Grant/Contract Number:
P41GM103393; AC02-76SF00515
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Inorganic Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 56; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 0020-1669
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Frank, Patrick, Szilagyi, Robert K., Gramlich, Volker, Hsu, Hua-Fen, Hedman, Britt, and Hodgson, Keith O.. Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b00991.
Frank, Patrick, Szilagyi, Robert K., Gramlich, Volker, Hsu, Hua-Fen, Hedman, Britt, & Hodgson, Keith O.. Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer. United States. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b00991.
Frank, Patrick, Szilagyi, Robert K., Gramlich, Volker, Hsu, Hua-Fen, Hedman, Britt, and Hodgson, Keith O.. Mon . "Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer". United States. doi:10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b00991. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353168.
@article{osti_1353168,
title = {Spin-Polarization-Induced Preedge Transitions in the Sulfur K-Edge XAS Spectra of Open-Shell Transition-Metal Sulfates: Spectroscopic Validation of σ-Bond Electron Transfer},
author = {Frank, Patrick and Szilagyi, Robert K. and Gramlich, Volker and Hsu, Hua-Fen and Hedman, Britt and Hodgson, Keith O.},
abstractNote = {Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of the monodentate sulfate complexes [MII(itao)(SO4)(H2O)0,1] (M = Co, Ni, Cu) and [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] exhibit well-defined preedge transitions at 2479.4, 2479.9, 2478.4, and 2477.7 eV, respectively, despite having no direct metal–sulfur bond, while the XAS preedge of [Zn(itao)(SO4)] is featureless. The sulfur K-edge XAS of [Cu(itao)(SO4)] but not of [Cu(Me6tren)(SO4)] uniquely exhibits a weak transition at 2472.1 eV, an extraordinary 8.7 eV below the first inflection of the rising K-edge. Preedge transitions also appear in the sulfur K-edge XAS of crystalline [MII(SO4)(H2O)] (M = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu, but not Zn) and in sulfates of higher-valent early transition metals. Ground-state density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations show that charge transfer from coordinated sulfate to paramagnetic late transition metals produces spin polarization that differentially mixes the spin-up (α) and spin-down (β) spin orbitals of the sulfate ligand, inducing negative spin density at the sulfate sulfur. Ground-state DFT calculations show that sulfur 3p character then mixes into metal 4s and 4p valence orbitals and various combinations of ligand antibonding orbitals, producing measurable sulfur XAS transitions. TDDFT calculations confirm the presence of XAS preedge features 0.5–2 eV below the rising sulfur K-edge energy. The 2472.1 eV feature arises when orbitals at lower energy than the frontier occupied orbitals with S 3p character mix with the copper(II) electron hole. Transmission of spin polarization and thus of radical character through several bonds between the sulfur and electron hole provides a new mechanism for the counterintuitive appearance of preedge transitions in the XAS spectra of transition-metal oxoanion ligands in the absence of any direct metal–absorber bond. The 2472.1 eV transition is evidence for further radicalization from copper(II), which extends across a hydrogen-bond bridge between sulfate and the itao ligand and involves orbitals at energies below the frontier set. In conclusion, this electronic structure feature provides a direct spectroscopic confirmation of the through-bond electron-transfer mechanism of redox-active metalloproteins.},
doi = {10.1021/acs.inorgchem.6b00991},
journal = {Inorganic Chemistry},
number = 3,
volume = 56,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 09 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 09 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record

Save / Share:
  • A novel restricted-open-shell configuration interaction with singles (ROCIS) approach for the calculation of transition metal L-edge X-ray absorption spectra is introduced. In this method, one first calculates the ground state and a number of excited states of the non-relativistic Hamiltonian. By construction, the total spin is a good quantum number in each of these states. For a ground state with total spin S excited states with spin S Prime = S, S - 1, and S + 1 are constructed. Using Wigner-Eckart algebra, all magnetic sublevels with M{sub S}= S, Horizontal-Ellipsis , -S for each multiplet of spin S aremore » obtained. The spin-orbit operator is represented by a mean-field approximation to the full Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator and is diagonalized over this N-particle basis. This is equivalent to a quasi-degenerate treatment of the spin-orbit interaction to all orders. Importantly, the excitation space spans all of the molecular multiplets that arise from the atomic Russell-Saunders terms. Hence, the method represents a rigorous first-principles approach to the complicated low-symmetry molecular multiplet problem met in L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In order to gain computational efficiency, as well as additional accuracy, the excitation space is restricted to single excitations and the configuration interaction matrix is slightly parameterized in order to account for dynamic correlation effects in an average way. To this end, it is advantageous to employ Kohn-Sham rather than Hartree-Fock orbitals thus defining the density functional theory/ROCIS method. However, the method can also be used in an entirely non-empirical fashion. Only three global empirical parameters are introduced and have been determined here for future application of the method to any system containing any transition metal. The three parameters were carefully calibrated using the L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy spectra of a test set of coordination complexes containing first row transition metals. These parameters are universal and transferable. Hence, there are no adjustable parameters that are used to fit experimental X-ray absorption spectra. Thus, the new approach classifies as a predictive first-principles method rather than an analysis tool. A series of calculations on transition metal compounds containing Cu, Ti, Fe, and Ni in various oxidation and spin states is investigated and a detailed comparison to experimental data is reported. In most cases, the approach yields good to excellent agreement with experiment. In addition, the origin of the observed spectral features is discussed in terms of the electronic structure of the investigated compounds.« less
  • Second-coordination sphere effects such as hydrogen bonding and steric constraints that provide for specific geometric configurations play a critical role in tuning the electronic structure of metalloenzyme active sites and thus have a significant effect on their catalytic efficiency. Crystallographic characterization of vertebrate and plant sulfite oxidase (SO) suggests that an average O{sub oxo}-Mo-S{sub Cys}-C dihedral angle of {approx}77{sup o} exists at the active site of these enzymes. This angle is slightly more acute ({approx}72{sup o}) in the bacterial sulfite dehydrogenase (SDH) from Starkeya novella. Here we report the synthesis, crystallographic, and electronic structural characterization of Tp*MoO(mba) (where Tp* =more » (3,5-dimethyltrispyrazol-1-yl)borate; mba = 2-mercaptobenzyl alcohol), the first oxomolybdenum monothiolate to possess an O{sub ax}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angle of {approx}90{sup o}. Sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy clearly shows that O{sub ax}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angles near 90{sup o} effectively eliminate covalency contributions to the Mo(xy) redox orbital from the thiolate sulfur. Sulfur K-pre-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy intensity ratios for the spin-allowed S(1s) {yields} S{sup v}(p) + Mo(xy) and S(1s) {yields} S{sup v}(p) + Mo(xz,yz) transitions have been calibrated by a direct comparison of theory with experiment to yield thiolate S{sup v}(p) orbital contributions, c{sup 2}{sub i}, to the Mo(xy) redox orbital and the Mo(xz,yz) orbital set. Furthermore, these intensity ratios are related to a second coordination sphere structural parameter, the O{sub oxo}-Mo-S{sub thiolate}-C dihedral angle. The relationship between Mo-S{sub thiolate} and Mo-S{sub dithiolene} covalency in oxomolydenum systems is discussed, particularly with respect to electron-transfer regeneration in SO.« less
  • Continual advancements in the development of synchrotron radiation sources have resulted in X-ray based spectroscopic techniques capable of probing the electronic and structural properties of numerous systems. This review gives an overview of the application of metal K-edge and L-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), as well as Kα resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS), to the study of electronic structure in transition metal sites with emphasis on experimentally quantifying 3d orbital covalency. The specific sensitivities of K-edge XAS, L-edge XAS, and RIXS are discussed emphasizing the complementary nature of the methods. L-edge XAS and RIXS are sensitive to mixing between 3dmore » orbitals and ligand valence orbitals, and to the differential orbital covalency (DOC), that is, the difference in the covalencies for different symmetry sets of the d orbitals. Both L-edge XAS and RIXS are highly sensitive to and enable separation of σ and π donor bonding and π back bonding contributions to bonding. Applying ligand field multiplet simulations, including charge transfer via valence bond configuration interactions, DOC can be obtained for direct comparison with density functional theory calculations and to understand chemical trends. Here, the application of RIXS as a probe of frontier molecular orbitals in a heme enzyme demonstrates the potential of this method for the study of metal sites in highly covalent coordination sites in bioinorganic chemistry.« less
  • Information on electronic structure can be obtained from analysis of x-ray absorption edge spectra. This approach has been used to obtain information from edges of transition metals like Cu, Fe, Ni, and Mo. It is also possible to directly study the absorption edge of ligands such as Cl and S bound to the metal. These edges fall in the 2-3-keV energy region where edge features are very well resolved. We report here the observation of an intense preedge transition associated with ligands bound to open-shell central atoms. We further show that the properties of these preedge features can be usedmore » to probe covalency in metal-ligand bonding. We have studied the ligand K edge of chlorine complexes of Cu and Zn: Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4}, bis(creatininium)CuCl{sub 4}, and Cs{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4}. The Cu site in Cs{sub 2}CuCl{sub 4} is distorted tetrahedral (D{sub 2d}), and the Zn site in Cs{sub 2}ZnCl{sub 4} is isostructural. Bis(creatininium)CuCl{sub 4} has a square-planar (D{sub 4h}) geometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) edge data were measured at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory by using methodology that has been previously described.« less