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Title: Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization

Abstract

Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.

Inventors:
; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1353079
Patent Number(s):
9,631,146
Application Number:
14/047,905
Assignee:
Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC NREL
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Patent
Resource Relation:
Patent File Date: 2013 Oct 07
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Beckham, Gregg T., Biddy, Mary J., Chmely, Stephen C., and Sturgeon, Matthew. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Beckham, Gregg T., Biddy, Mary J., Chmely, Stephen C., & Sturgeon, Matthew. Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization. United States.
Beckham, Gregg T., Biddy, Mary J., Chmely, Stephen C., and Sturgeon, Matthew. Tue . "Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization". United States. doi:. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353079.
@article{osti_1353079,
title = {Hydroxide catalysts for lignin depolymerization},
author = {Beckham, Gregg T. and Biddy, Mary J. and Chmely, Stephen C. and Sturgeon, Matthew},
abstractNote = {Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Apr 25 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Patent:

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  • Solid base catalysts and their use for the base-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of lignin to compounds such as aromatics are presented herein. Exemplary catalysts include layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for BCD of lignin.
  • Lignin is a major component of plant cell walls that is typically underutilized in selective conversion strategies for renewable fuels and chemicals. The mechanisms by which thermal and catalytic treatments deconstruct lignin remain elusive, for which quantum mechanical calculations can offer fundamental insights. In this work, a computational approach has been used to elucidate the reductive deconstruction pathway of a ruthenium-catalyzed system. Transition states have been computed to determine the rate-limiting steps for a catalyst that cleaves arylether linkages. Our calculations are supported by experimental synthesis and kinetic and thermodynamic measurements of the deconstruction of model lignin dimers by amore » ruthenium catalyst with the ultimate objective of designing new catalysts to eventually utilize lignin in biorefineries.« less
  • We will synthesize and screen solid catalysts for the depolymerization of lignin to monomeric and oligomeric oxygenated species, which could be fractionated and integrated into refinery intermediate streams for selective upgrading, or catalytically upgraded to fuels and chemicals. This work will primarily focus on the synthesis and application of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) as recyclable, heterogeneous catalysts for depolymerization of lignin model compounds and softwood lignin. LDHs have been shown in our group to offer good supports and catalysts to promote base-catalyzed depolymerization of lignin model compounds and in preliminary experiments for the depolymerization of lignin from an Organosolv process.more » We will also include additional catalyst supports such as silica, alumina, and carbon as identified in ongoing and past efforts at NREL. This work will consist of two tasks. Overall, this work will be synergistic with ongoing efforts at NREL, funded by the DOE Biomass Program, on the development of catalysts for lignin depolymerization in the context of biochemical and thermochemical conversion of corn stover and other biomass feedstocks to advanced fuels and chemicals.« less
  • Hydrotalcites (HTCs) exhibit multiple adjustable parameters to tune catalytic activity, including interlayer anion composition, metal hydroxide layer composition, and catalyst preparation methods. Here in this paper, we report the influence of several of these parameters on β-O-4 bond scission in a lignin model dimer, 2-phenoxy-1-phenethanol (PE), to yield phenol and acetophenone. We find that the presence of both basic and NO 3– anions in the interlayer increases the catalyst activity by 2–3-fold. In contrast, other anions or transition metals do not enhance catalytic activity in comparison to blank HTC. The catalyst is not active for C–C bond cleavage on ligninmore » model dimers and has no effect on dimers without an α-OH group. Most importantly, the catalyst is highly active in the depolymerization of two process-relevant lignin substrates, producing a significant amount of low-molecular-weight aromatic species. The catalyst can be recycled until the NO 3– anions are depleted, after which the activity can be restored by replenishing the NO 3– reservoir and regenerating the hydrated HTC structure. These results demonstrate a route to selective lignin depolymerization in a heterogeneous system with an inexpensive, earth-abundant, commercially relevant, and easily regenerated catalyst.« less
  • Lignin is an underutilized value stream in current biomass conversion technologies because there exist no economic and technically feasible routes for lignin depolymerization and upgrading. Base-catalyzed deconstruction (BCD) has been applied for lignin depolymerization (e.g., the Kraft process) in the pulp and paper industry for more than a century using aqueous-phase media. However, these efforts require treatment to neutralize the resulting streams, which adds significantly to the cost of lignin deconstruction. To circumvent the need for downstream treatment, here we report recent advances in the synthesis of layered double hydroxide and metal oxide catalysts to be applied to the BCDmore » of lignin. These catalysts may prove more cost-effective than liquid-phase, non-recyclable base, and their use obviates downstream processing steps such as neutralization. Synthetic procedures for various transition-metal containing catalysts, detailed kinetics measurements using lignin model compounds, and results of the application of these catalysts to biomass-derived lignin will be presented.« less