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Title: Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis

Abstract

Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. Finally, these results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Federal Univ. of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Polytechnic School of UFBA, Salvador (Brazil)
  2. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
  3. Federal Univ. of South Bahia-UFSB (Brazil); Polytechnic School of UFBA, Salvador (Brazil)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; NREL Fellows Program
OSTI Identifier:
1353007
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-2700-66993
Journal ID: ISSN 0196-8904
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Energy Conversion and Management
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 141; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0196-8904
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; biodiesel; FAEEs; subcritical; animal fat; net energy ratio

Citation Formats

Sales, Emerson A., Ghirardi, Maria L., and Jorquera, Orlando. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.08.015.
Sales, Emerson A., Ghirardi, Maria L., & Jorquera, Orlando. Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis. United States. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.08.015.
Sales, Emerson A., Ghirardi, Maria L., and Jorquera, Orlando. 2016. "Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis". United States. doi:10.1016/j.enconman.2016.08.015. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1353007.
@article{osti_1353007,
title = {Subcritical ethylic biodiesel production from wet animal fat and vegetable oils: A net energy ratio analysis},
author = {Sales, Emerson A. and Ghirardi, Maria L. and Jorquera, Orlando},
abstractNote = {Ethylic transesterification process for biodiesel production without any chemical or biochemical catalysts at different subcritical thermodynamic conditions was performed using wet animal fat, soybean and palm oils as feedstock. The results indicate that 2 h of reaction at 240 °C with pressures varying from 20 to 45 bar was sufficient to transform almost all lipid fraction of the samples to biodiesel, depending on the reactor dead volume and proportions between reactants. Conversions of 100%, 84% and 98.5% were obtained for animal fat, soybean oil and palm oil, respectively, in the presence of water, with a net energy ration values of 2.6, 2.1 and 2.5 respectively. Finally, these results indicate that the process is energetically favorable, and thus represents a cleaner technology with environmental advantages when compared to traditional esterification or transesterification processes.},
doi = {10.1016/j.enconman.2016.08.015},
journal = {Energy Conversion and Management},
number = C,
volume = 141,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 8
}

Journal Article:
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  • One of the major impacts that humans have had on the world is the consequence of the use of natural resources of the planet, whose purpose has been the energy supply for economic and technological development. This economic development has caused an increase in the demand for goods and services in industrialized countries, and in turn has led to an increase in per capita consumption of energy worldwide. For this reason, it is very important to develop new energy alternatives to reduce the actual dependence on petroleum and, at the same time, reduce the impact of emissions of greenhouse gasesmore » to the environment. An alternative to using fossil fuels is biodiesel, which is biodegradable, eco-friendly, and represents an economical source of energy. Biodiesel may be produced by the transesterification reaction of new or used vegetable oils (for example sunflower, corn, or olive oil) with a short chain alcohol (methanol) in the presence of a catalyst (NaOH). In the present work we have synthesized biodiesel from these three types of vegetable oils that have been subsequently characterized. Different chemical tests have been used to ensure the quality of the biodiesel obtained. The results indicate that sunflower oil provided better efficiency biodiesel, followed by corn and olive oils. CO 2 emissions that could affect the environment were, in all cases, less than 4.1%.« less
  • In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in generalmore » has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.« less
  • This report documents work done for a late-start LDRD project, which was carried out during the last quarter of FY07. The objective of this project was to experimentally explore the feasibility of converting vegetable (e.g., soybean) oils to biodiesel by employing slit-channel reactors and solid catalysts. We first designed and fabricated several slit-channel reactors with varying channel depths, and employed them to investigate the improved performance of slit-channel reactors over traditional batch reactors using a NaOH liquid catalyst. We then evaluated the effectiveness of several solid catalysts, including CaO, ZnO, MgO, ZrO{sub 2}, calcium gluconate, and heteropolyacid or HPA (Cs{submore » 2.5}H{sub 0.5}PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}), for catalyzing the soybean oil-to-biodiesel transesterification reaction. We found that the slit-channel reactor performance improves as channel depth decreases, as expected; and the conversion efficiency of a slit-channel reactor is significantly higher when its channel is very shallow. We further confirmed CaO as having the highest catalytic activity among the solid catalysts tested, and we demonstrated for the first time calcium gluconate as a promising solid catalyst for converting soybean oil to biodiesel, based on our preliminary batch-mode conversion experiments.« less