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Title: Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to $z$ = 1.1: Color distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction

Abstract

We study the galaxy populations in 74 Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope survey, which have been imaged in the science verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. The sample extends up to z ~ 1.1 with 4 × 10 14 M⊙ ≤ M200 ≤ 3 × 10 15M⊙. Using the band containing the 4000 Å break and its redward neighbour, we study the colour–magnitude distributions of cluster galaxies to ~m* + 2, finding that: (1)The intrinsic rest frame g – r colour width of the red sequence (RS) population is ~0.03 out to z ~ 0.85 with a preference for an increase to ~0.07 at z = 1, and (2) the prominence of the RS declines beyond z ~ 0.6. The spatial distribution of cluster galaxies is well described by the NFW profile out to 4R200 with a concentration of c g = 3.59$$+0.20\atop{–0.18}$$, 5.37$$+0.27\atop{-0.24}$$ and 1.38$$+0.21\atop{-0.19}$$ for the full, the RS and the blue non-RS populations, respectively, but with ~40 per cent to 55 per cent cluster to cluster variation and no statistically significant redshift or mass trends. The number of galaxies within the virial region N200 exhibits a mass trend indicating that the number of galaxies per unit total mass is lower in the most massive clusters, and shows no significant redshift trend. The RS fraction within R200 is (68 ± 3) per cent at z = 0.46, varies from ~55 per cent at z = 1 to ~80 per cent at z = 0.1 and exhibits intrinsic variation among clusters of ~14 per cent. Finally, we discuss a model that suggests that the observed redshift trend in RS fraction favours a transformation time-scale for infalling field galaxies to become RS galaxies of 2–3 Gyr.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [9];  [10];  [1];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14] more »;  [1];  [15];  [12];  [16];  [10];  [17];  [18];  [19];  [20];  [21];  [1];  [22];  [23];  [13];  [2];  [16];  [24];  [25];  [4];  [26];  [16];  [10];  [26];  [27];  [24];  [28];  [29];  [18];  [30];  [16];  [16];  [12];  [31];  [32];  [33];  [34];  [23];  [35];  [36];  [18];  [35];  [4];  [16];  [19];  [37];  [38];  [26];  [39];  [18];  [11];  [40];  [4];  [16] « less
  1. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany)
  2. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Garching (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)
  3. Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ., Munich (Germany); Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  4. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  5. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Rhodes Univ., Grahamstown (South Africa)
  6. Colby College, Waterville, ME (United States); Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)
  7. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom); Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  8. Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States)
  9. Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, Paris (France); Sorbonne Univ., Paris (France)
  10. Univ. College London, London (United Kingdom)
  11. Univ. of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom)
  12. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Observatorio Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  13. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Urbana, IL (United States)
  14. Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Bellaterra (Spain); The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
  15. Univ. of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Univ. of Southampton, Southampton (United Kingdom)
  16. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  17. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  18. Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)
  19. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
  20. Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, Bellaterra (Spain)
  21. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Univ. of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
  22. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
  23. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  24. The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)
  25. Univ. de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  26. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
  27. Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
  28. Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
  29. Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States)
  30. The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona (Spain)
  31. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  32. Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia)
  33. Univ. of Sussex, Brighton (United Kingdom)
  34. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  35. Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Madrid (Spain)
  36. Lab. Interinstitucional de e-Astronomia - LIneA, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Porto Alegre (Brazil)
  37. Univ. of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI (United States); Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)
  38. Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
  39. National Center for Supercomputing Applications, Urbana, IL (United States)
  40. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Lemont, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
DES Collaboration
OSTI Identifier:
1352814
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1360951; OSTI ID: 1366530
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-021-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711; KJ0402000; KJ0503000; ERKJ311; ERKJEPM; TRN: US1700947
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-76SF00515; AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 467; Journal Issue: 4; Journal ID: ISSN 0035-8711
Publisher:
Royal Astronomical Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; galaxies: clusters: general; galaxies: clusters: individual; galaxies: evolution; galaxies: formation; galaxies: luminosity function; mass function

Citation Formats

Hennig, C., Mohr, Joseph J., Zenteno, A., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Bocquet, S., Strazzullo, V., Saro, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Bayliss, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Capasso, R., Capozzi, D., Carnero, A., Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Chiu, I., D’Andrea, C. B., daCosta, L. N., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fausti-Neto, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gangkofner, C., Gonzalez, A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gupta, N., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., McDonald, M., Melchior, P., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Plazas, A. A., Reichardt, C., Romer, A. K., Rozo, E., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Santiago, B., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Zhang, Y. Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to $z$ = 1.1: Color distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx175.
Hennig, C., Mohr, Joseph J., Zenteno, A., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Bocquet, S., Strazzullo, V., Saro, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Bayliss, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Capasso, R., Capozzi, D., Carnero, A., Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Chiu, I., D’Andrea, C. B., daCosta, L. N., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fausti-Neto, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gangkofner, C., Gonzalez, A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gupta, N., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., McDonald, M., Melchior, P., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Plazas, A. A., Reichardt, C., Romer, A. K., Rozo, E., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Santiago, B., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., & Zhang, Y. Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to $z$ = 1.1: Color distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction. United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx175.
Hennig, C., Mohr, Joseph J., Zenteno, A., Desai, S., Dietrich, J. P., Bocquet, S., Strazzullo, V., Saro, A., Abbott, T. M. C., Abdalla, F. B., Bayliss, M., Benoit-Lévy, A., Bernstein, R. A., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Capasso, R., Capozzi, D., Carnero, A., Kind, M. Carrasco, Carretero, J., Chiu, I., D’Andrea, C. B., daCosta, L. N., Diehl, H. T., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Evrard, A. E., Fausti-Neto, A., Fosalba, P., Frieman, J., Gangkofner, C., Gonzalez, A., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R. A., Gupta, N., Gutierrez, G., Honscheid, K., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., March, M., Marshall, J. L., Martini, P., McDonald, M., Melchior, P., Miller, C. J., Miquel, R., Neilsen, E., Nord, B., Ogando, R., Plazas, A. A., Reichardt, C., Romer, A. K., Rozo, E., Rykoff, E. S., Sanchez, E., Santiago, B., Schubnell, M., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Stalder, B., Stanford, S. A., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M. E. C., Tarle, G., Thomas, D., Vikram, V., Walker, A. R., and Zhang, Y. Mon . "Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to $z$ = 1.1: Color distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction". United States. doi:10.1093/mnras/stx175. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352814.
@article{osti_1352814,
title = {Galaxy populations in massive galaxy clusters to $z$ = 1.1: Color distribution, concentration, halo occupation number and red sequence fraction},
author = {Hennig, C. and Mohr, Joseph J. and Zenteno, A. and Desai, S. and Dietrich, J. P. and Bocquet, S. and Strazzullo, V. and Saro, A. and Abbott, T. M. C. and Abdalla, F. B. and Bayliss, M. and Benoit-Lévy, A. and Bernstein, R. A. and Bertin, E. and Brooks, D. and Capasso, R. and Capozzi, D. and Carnero, A. and Kind, M. Carrasco and Carretero, J. and Chiu, I. and D’Andrea, C. B. and daCosta, L. N. and Diehl, H. T. and Doel, P. and Eifler, T. F. and Evrard, A. E. and Fausti-Neto, A. and Fosalba, P. and Frieman, J. and Gangkofner, C. and Gonzalez, A. and Gruen, D. and Gruendl, R. A. and Gupta, N. and Gutierrez, G. and Honscheid, K. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and James, D. J. and Kuehn, K. and Kuropatkin, N. and Lahav, O. and March, M. and Marshall, J. L. and Martini, P. and McDonald, M. and Melchior, P. and Miller, C. J. and Miquel, R. and Neilsen, E. and Nord, B. and Ogando, R. and Plazas, A. A. and Reichardt, C. and Romer, A. K. and Rozo, E. and Rykoff, E. S. and Sanchez, E. and Santiago, B. and Schubnell, M. and Sevilla-Noarbe, I. and Smith, R. C. and Soares-Santos, M. and Sobreira, F. and Stalder, B. and Stanford, S. A. and Suchyta, E. and Swanson, M. E. C. and Tarle, G. and Thomas, D. and Vikram, V. and Walker, A. R. and Zhang, Y.},
abstractNote = {We study the galaxy populations in 74 Sunyaev–Zeldovich effect selected clusters from the South Pole Telescope survey, which have been imaged in the science verification phase of the Dark Energy Survey. The sample extends up to z ~ 1.1 with 4 × 1014 M⊙ ≤ M200 ≤ 3 × 1015M⊙. Using the band containing the 4000 Å break and its redward neighbour, we study the colour–magnitude distributions of cluster galaxies to ~m* + 2, finding that: (1)The intrinsic rest frame g – r colour width of the red sequence (RS) population is ~0.03 out to z ~ 0.85 with a preference for an increase to ~0.07 at z = 1, and (2) the prominence of the RS declines beyond z ~ 0.6. The spatial distribution of cluster galaxies is well described by the NFW profile out to 4R200 with a concentration of cg = 3.59$+0.20\atop{–0.18}$, 5.37$+0.27\atop{-0.24}$ and 1.38$+0.21\atop{-0.19}$ for the full, the RS and the blue non-RS populations, respectively, but with ~40 per cent to 55 per cent cluster to cluster variation and no statistically significant redshift or mass trends. The number of galaxies within the virial region N200 exhibits a mass trend indicating that the number of galaxies per unit total mass is lower in the most massive clusters, and shows no significant redshift trend. The RS fraction within R200 is (68 ± 3) per cent at z = 0.46, varies from ~55 per cent at z = 1 to ~80 per cent at z = 0.1 and exhibits intrinsic variation among clusters of ~14 per cent. Finally, we discuss a model that suggests that the observed redshift trend in RS fraction favours a transformation time-scale for infalling field galaxies to become RS galaxies of 2–3 Gyr.},
doi = {10.1093/mnras/stx175},
journal = {Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society},
number = 4,
volume = 467,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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