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Title: NaAlTi 3O 8, A Novel Anode Material for Sodium Ion Battery

Abstract

Sodium ion batteries are being considered as an alternative to lithium ion batteries in large-scale energy storage applications owing to the low cost. In this paper, a novel titanate compound, NaAlTi 3O 8, was successfully synthesized and tested as a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and refinement were used to analyze the crystal structure. Electrochemical cycling tests under a C/10 rate between 0.01 - 2.5 V showed that ~83 mAh/g capacity could be achieved in the second cycle, with ~75% of which retained after 100 cycles, which corresponds to 0.75 Na + insertion and extraction. The influence of synthesis conditions on electrochemical performances was investigated and discussed. Finally, NaAlTi 3O 8 not only presents a new anode material with low average voltage of ~0.5 V, but also provides a new type of intercalation anode with a crystal structure that differentiates from the anodes that have been reported.

Authors:
 [1]; ORCiD logo [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). The Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering
  2. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division
  3. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). National Synchrotron Light Source II
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF)
Contributing Org.:
Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1352810
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1376120
Report Number(s):
BNL-114010-2017-JA
Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322; KC0402010; ERKCSNX
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725; 1410936; SC00112704
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Scientific Reports
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322
Publisher:
Nature Publishing Group
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 25 ENERGY STORAGE; batteries

Citation Formats

Ma, Xuetian, An, Ke, Bai, Jianmin, and Chen, Hailong. NaAlTi3O8, A Novel Anode Material for Sodium Ion Battery. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00202-y.
Ma, Xuetian, An, Ke, Bai, Jianmin, & Chen, Hailong. NaAlTi3O8, A Novel Anode Material for Sodium Ion Battery. United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00202-y.
Ma, Xuetian, An, Ke, Bai, Jianmin, and Chen, Hailong. Mon . "NaAlTi3O8, A Novel Anode Material for Sodium Ion Battery". United States. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-00202-y. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352810.
@article{osti_1352810,
title = {NaAlTi3O8, A Novel Anode Material for Sodium Ion Battery},
author = {Ma, Xuetian and An, Ke and Bai, Jianmin and Chen, Hailong},
abstractNote = {Sodium ion batteries are being considered as an alternative to lithium ion batteries in large-scale energy storage applications owing to the low cost. In this paper, a novel titanate compound, NaAlTi3O8, was successfully synthesized and tested as a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and refinement were used to analyze the crystal structure. Electrochemical cycling tests under a C/10 rate between 0.01 - 2.5 V showed that ~83 mAh/g capacity could be achieved in the second cycle, with ~75% of which retained after 100 cycles, which corresponds to 0.75 Na+ insertion and extraction. The influence of synthesis conditions on electrochemical performances was investigated and discussed. Finally, NaAlTi3O8 not only presents a new anode material with low average voltage of ~0.5 V, but also provides a new type of intercalation anode with a crystal structure that differentiates from the anodes that have been reported.},
doi = {10.1038/s41598-017-00202-y},
journal = {Scientific Reports},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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  • Sodium ion batteries are being considered as an alternative to lithium ion batteries in large-scale energy storage applications owing to the low cost. A novel titanate compound, NaAlTi 3O 8, was successfully synthesized and tested as a promising anode material for sodium ion batteries. Powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and refinement were used to analyze the crystal structure. Electrochemical cycling tests under a C/10 rate between 0.01 - 2.5 V showed that ~83 mAh/g capacity could be achieved in the second cycle, with ~75% of which retained after 100 cycles, which corresponds to 0.75 Na + insertion and extraction. The influencemore » of synthesis conditions on electrochemical performances was investigated and discussed. In conclusion, NaAlTi 3O 8 not only presents a new anode material with low average voltage of ~0.5 V, but also provides a new type of intercalation anode with a crystal structure that differentiates from the anodes that have been reported.« less
  • An alcoholysis exchange between tris(hydroxymethyl)ethane (THME-H{sub 3}) or tris(hydroxymethyl)propane (THMP-H{sub 3}) and group IV metal isopropoxides yields compounds of the general formula (THMR){sub 2}M{sub 4}(OCHMe{sub 2}){sub 10}[M = Ti (R = E, 1; P, 2); Zr (R = E, 3; P, 4)]. 1 and 2 are formed in toluene, at ambient glovebox temperatures, and adopt a typical fused-M{sub 3}O{sub 12} structure where each titanium atom is surrounded by six oxygens in a slightly distorted face-shared bioctahedral arrangement. All of the oxygens of the central core are from the THMR ligand, present as {mu}-O and {mu}{sub 3}-O oxygen bridges. Generation ofmore » 3 or 4 requires heating in toluene at reflux temperatures. The zirconium atoms of 3 possess an extremely distorted edge-shared bioctahedral geometry where the central core consists of a Zr{sub 4}O{sub 8} ring (eight oxygens: six from THME ligands and two from isopropoxide ligands). Each of the zirconium atoms is six-coordinated with four bridging oxygens and two terminal isopropoxide ligands. Spincast deposited films generated from toluene solutions of 1 and 3 indicate that increased uniformity of the films and decreased hydrolysis occur in comparison to the cases of Ti(OCHMe{sub 2}){sub 4}, 5, and [Zr(OCHMe{sub 2}){sub 4}{center_dot}HOCHMe{sub 2}]{sub 2}, 6, respectively.« less
  • Research highlights: {yields} It is a novel attempt on nano composites involving Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Sn to use as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. {yields} Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} was obtained by a solid state route and nano-Sn particles were derived from a chemical reduction process. {yields} These materials are characterized for their physical and electrochemical characteristics. {yields} Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Sn composite delivers stable and enhanced discharge capacity of 200mAhg{sup -1} and does not exhibit any irreversible capacity. {yields} The present investigation brings out novel high performing composites for lithium ion battery -- Abstract: Li{submore » 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Sn nano-composites have been prepared as anode material for lithium ion batteries by high-energy mechanical milling method. Structure of the samples has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), which reveals the formation of phase-pure materials. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) suggests that the primary particles are around 100 nm size. The local environment of the metal cations is confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirms that titanium is present in Ti{sup 4+} state. The electrochemical properties have been evaluated by galvanostatic charge/discharge studies. Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Sn-10% composite delivers stable and enhanced discharge capacity of 200 mAh g{sup -1} indicates that the electrochemical performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Sn nano-composites is associated with the size and distribution of the Sn particles in the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} matrix. The smaller the size and more homogeneous dispersion of Sn particles in the Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} matrix exhibits better cycling performance of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/Sn composites as compared to bare Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} and Sn particles. Further, Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} provides a facile microstructure to fairly accommodate the volume expansion during the alloying and dealloying of Sn with lithium.« less