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Title: On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing

Abstract

The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filtermore » diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [4]
  1. Filter Sensing Technologies
  2. CTS Corporation
  3. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)
  4. ORNL
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center (FEERC); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). National Transportation Research Center (NTRC)
Sponsoring Org.:
Work for Others (WFO)
OSTI Identifier:
1352807
DOE Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 4; Conference: WCX17: SAE World Congress Experience, Detroit, MI, USA, 20170404, 20170404
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Sappok, Alex, Ragaller, Paul, Herman, Andrew, Bromberg, L., Prikhodko, Vitaly Y, Parks, II, James E, and Storey, John Morse. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0950.
Sappok, Alex, Ragaller, Paul, Herman, Andrew, Bromberg, L., Prikhodko, Vitaly Y, Parks, II, James E, & Storey, John Morse. On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing. United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0950.
Sappok, Alex, Ragaller, Paul, Herman, Andrew, Bromberg, L., Prikhodko, Vitaly Y, Parks, II, James E, and Storey, John Morse. Sun . "On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing". United States. doi:10.4271/2017-01-0950. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352807.
@article{osti_1352807,
title = {On-Board Particulate Filter Failure Prevention and Failure Diagnostics Using Radio Frequency Sensing},
author = {Sappok, Alex and Ragaller, Paul and Herman, Andrew and Bromberg, L. and Prikhodko, Vitaly Y and Parks, II, James E and Storey, John Morse},
abstractNote = {The increasing use of diesel and gasoline particulate filters requires advanced on-board diagnostics (OBD) to prevent and detect filter failures and malfunctions. Early detection of upstream (engine-out) malfunctions is paramount to preventing irreversible damage to downstream aftertreatment system components. Such early detection can mitigate the failure of the particulate filter resulting in the escape of emissions exceeding permissible limits and extend the component life. However, despite best efforts at early detection and filter failure prevention, the OBD system must also be able to detect filter failures when they occur. In this study, radio frequency (RF) sensors were used to directly monitor the particulate filter state of health for both gasoline particulate filter (GPF) and diesel particulate filter (DPF) applications. The testing included controlled engine dynamometer evaluations, which characterized soot slip from various filter failure modes, as well as on-road fleet vehicle tests. The results show a high sensitivity to detect conditions resulting in soot leakage from the particulate filter, as well as potential for direct detection of structural failures including internal cracks and melted regions within the filter media itself. Furthermore, the measurements demonstrate, for the first time, the capability to employ a direct and continuous monitor of particulate filter diagnostics to both prevent and detect potential failure conditions in the field.},
doi = {10.4271/2017-01-0950},
journal = {},
number = 4,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • Reliable means for on-board detection of particulate filter failures or malfunctions are needed to meet diagnostics (OBD) requirements. Detecting these failures, which result in tailpipe particulate matter (PM) emissions exceeding the OBD limit, over all operating conditions is challenging. Current approaches employ differential pressure sensors and downstream PM sensors, in combination with particulate filter and engine-out soot models. These conventional monitors typically operate over narrowly-defined time windows and do not provide a direct measure of the filter’s state of health. In contrast, radio frequency (RF) sensors, which transmit a wireless signal through the filter substrate provide a direct means formore » interrogating the condition of the filter itself. Here, this study investigated the use of RF sensors for the continuous measurement of filter trapping efficiency, which was compared to downstream measurements with an AVL Microsoot Sensor, and a PM sampling probe simulating the geometry and installation configuration of a conventional PM sensor. The study included several particulate filter failure modes, both above and below the OBD threshold. Finally, the results confirmed the use of RF sensors to provide a direct and continuous measure of the particulate filter’s state of health over a range of typical in-use operating conditions, thereby significantly increasing the time window over which filter failures may be detected.« less
  • Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on amore » GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.« less
  • Accurate knowledge of diesel particulate filter (DPF) loading is critical for robust and efficient operation of the combined engine-exhaust aftertreatment system. Furthermore, upcoming on-board diagnostics regulations require on-board technologies to evaluate the status of the DPF. This work describes the application of radio frequency (RF) based sensing techniques to accurately measure DPF soot levels and the spatial distribution of the accumulated material. A 1.9L GM turbo diesel engine and a DPF with an RF-sensor were studied. Direct comparisons between the RF measurement and conventional pressure-based methods were made. Further analysis of the particulate matter loading rates was obtained with amore » mass-based soot emission measurement instrument (TEOM). Comparison with pressure drop measurements show the RF technique is unaffected by exhaust flow variations and exhibits a high degree of sensitivity to DPF soot loading and good dynamic response. Additional computational and experimental work further illustrates the spatial resolution of the RF measurements. Based on the experimental results, the RF technique shows significant promise for improving DPF control enabling optimization of the combined engine-aftertreatment system for improved fuel economy and extended DPF service life.« less
  • Three established mechanical test specimen geometries and test methods used to evaluate mechanical properties of brittle materials are adapted to the diesel particulate filter (DPF) architecture to evaluate failure initiation stress and apparent elastic modulus of the ceramics comprising DPFs. The three custom-designed test coupons are harvested out of DPFs to promote a particular combination of orientation of crack initiation and crack plane. The testing of the DPF biaxial flexure disk produces a radial tensile stress and a crack plane parallel with the DPF's longitudinal axis. The testing of the DPF sectored flexural specimen produces axial tension at the DPF'smore » OD and a crack plane perpendicular to the DPF's longitudinal axis. The testing of the DPF o-ring specimen produces hoop tension at the DPF's original outer diameter (OD) and at the inner diameter of the test coupon, and a crack plane parallel to the DPF's longitudinal axis. The testing of these mechanical test coupons also enables the determination of an apparent elastic modulus of the DPF ceramic material. Results consistently show that the apparent elastic modulus of the DPF ceramics is much less (e.g., up to an order of magnitude less) than apparent elastic modulus estimated using sonic- or resonance-based test methods. These specimen geometries, produced stress states, and modes of consequential crack initiation are discussed in context to the DPF's symmetry along with the assessments of each specimen's ease of fabrication, testing, failure stress determination, ultimate viability, and prospects for test standardization. Lastly, an explanation is offered for why the apparent elastic modulus measured with these three mechanical test coupons is relatively low and why their low values are more accurate for predicting thermomechanical stresses in DPFs.« less
  • No abstract prepared.