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Title: Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver

Abstract

Now, detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. We present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's T-c is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TESmore » films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Our results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from these research and development wafers have been incorporated into the fabrication process to get the baseline fabrication process presented here. SPT-3G is scheduled to deploy to the South Pole Telescope in late 2016.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7];  [8];  [6];  [6];  [6];  [2];  [4];  [4];  [4];  [9];  [5];  [2];  [2] more »;  [2];  [5];  [10];  [4];  [8];  [2];  [11];  [8];  [5];  [12];  [4];  [13];  [5];  [5];  [6];  [5];  [2];  [14];  [15];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [2];  [4];  [2];  [10];  [11];  [16];  [17];  [2];  [4];  [4];  [2];  [15];  [18];  [19];  [19];  [5];  [8];  [19];  [4];  [2];  [20];  [21];  [4];  [5];  [21];  [4];  [6];  [3];  [16];  [11];  [2];  [5];  [2];  [6] « less
  1. United Kingdom Astronomy Technology Centre, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  2. Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
  3. Univ. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)
  4. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States). Kavli Inst. for Cosmological Physics (KICP)
  5. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  6. Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology
  7. Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)
  8. Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  9. SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
  10. McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)
  11. Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)
  12. High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan)
  13. NIST Quantum Devices Group, Boulder, CO (United States)
  14. Case Western Reserve Univ. (United States)
  15. Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
  16. Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada)
  17. Univ. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)
  18. Univ. of Melbourne (Australia)
  19. Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)
  20. Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
  21. Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22); National Science Foundation (NSF); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC); Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
OSTI Identifier:
1352656
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-06CH11357
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9914; Journal Issue: Part 1; Journal ID: ISSN 0277-786X
Publisher:
SPIE
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; Bolometers; CMB; Microfabrication; SPT-3G; South Pole Telescope; Superconducting Detectors; Transition Edge Sensors

Citation Formats

Holland, Wayne S., Zmuidzinas, Jonas, Posada, Chrystian M., Ade, Peter A. R., Anderson, Adam J., Avva, Jessica, Ahmed, Zeeshan, Arnold, Kam S., Austermann, Jason, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Bleem, Lindsey, Byrum, Karen, Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Chang, Clarence, Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Cukierman, Ari, Czaplewski, David A., Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., de Haan, Tijmen, Dobbs, Matt, Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Gannon, Renae N., Guyser, Robert J., Halverson, Nils W., Harrington, Nicholas L., Hattori, Kaori, Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver, Khaire, Trupti, Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuo, Chao-Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Leitch, Erik M., Lendinez Escudero, Sergi, Meyer, Stephan S., Miller, Christina S., Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Novosad, Valentyn, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John E., Rahlin, Alexandra, Reichardt, Christian L., Ruhl, John E., Saliwanchik, Benjamin, Shirley, Ian, Sayre, James T., Shariff, Jamil A., Shirokoff, Erik D., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Sobrin, Joshua, Story, Kyle, Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thakur, Ritoban B., Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yefremenko, Volodymyr, and Yoon, Ki Won. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1117/12.2232912.
Holland, Wayne S., Zmuidzinas, Jonas, Posada, Chrystian M., Ade, Peter A. R., Anderson, Adam J., Avva, Jessica, Ahmed, Zeeshan, Arnold, Kam S., Austermann, Jason, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Bleem, Lindsey, Byrum, Karen, Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Chang, Clarence, Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Cukierman, Ari, Czaplewski, David A., Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., de Haan, Tijmen, Dobbs, Matt, Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Gannon, Renae N., Guyser, Robert J., Halverson, Nils W., Harrington, Nicholas L., Hattori, Kaori, Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver, Khaire, Trupti, Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuo, Chao-Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Leitch, Erik M., Lendinez Escudero, Sergi, Meyer, Stephan S., Miller, Christina S., Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Novosad, Valentyn, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John E., Rahlin, Alexandra, Reichardt, Christian L., Ruhl, John E., Saliwanchik, Benjamin, Shirley, Ian, Sayre, James T., Shariff, Jamil A., Shirokoff, Erik D., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Sobrin, Joshua, Story, Kyle, Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thakur, Ritoban B., Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yefremenko, Volodymyr, & Yoon, Ki Won. Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver. United States. doi:10.1117/12.2232912.
Holland, Wayne S., Zmuidzinas, Jonas, Posada, Chrystian M., Ade, Peter A. R., Anderson, Adam J., Avva, Jessica, Ahmed, Zeeshan, Arnold, Kam S., Austermann, Jason, Bender, Amy N., Benson, Bradford A., Bleem, Lindsey, Byrum, Karen, Carlstrom, John E., Carter, Faustin W., Chang, Clarence, Cho, Hsiao-Mei, Cukierman, Ari, Czaplewski, David A., Ding, Junjia, Divan, Ralu N. S., de Haan, Tijmen, Dobbs, Matt, Dutcher, Daniel, Everett, Wenderline, Gannon, Renae N., Guyser, Robert J., Halverson, Nils W., Harrington, Nicholas L., Hattori, Kaori, Henning, Jason W., Hilton, Gene C., Holzapfel, William L., Huang, Nicholas, Irwin, Kent D., Jeong, Oliver, Khaire, Trupti, Korman, Milo, Kubik, Donna L., Kuo, Chao-Lin, Lee, Adrian T., Leitch, Erik M., Lendinez Escudero, Sergi, Meyer, Stephan S., Miller, Christina S., Montgomery, Joshua, Nadolski, Andrew, Natoli, Tyler J., Nguyen, Hogan, Novosad, Valentyn, Padin, Stephen, Pan, Zhaodi, Pearson, John E., Rahlin, Alexandra, Reichardt, Christian L., Ruhl, John E., Saliwanchik, Benjamin, Shirley, Ian, Sayre, James T., Shariff, Jamil A., Shirokoff, Erik D., Stan, Liliana, Stark, Antony A., Sobrin, Joshua, Story, Kyle, Suzuki, Aritoki, Tang, Qing Yang, Thakur, Ritoban B., Thompson, Keith L., Tucker, Carole E., Vanderlinde, Keith, Vieira, Joaquin D., Wang, Gensheng, Whitehorn, Nathan, Yefremenko, Volodymyr, and Yoon, Ki Won. 2016. "Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver". United States. doi:10.1117/12.2232912. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352656.
@article{osti_1352656,
title = {Large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic TES detectors for CMB measurements with the SPT-3G receiver},
author = {Holland, Wayne S. and Zmuidzinas, Jonas and Posada, Chrystian M. and Ade, Peter A. R. and Anderson, Adam J. and Avva, Jessica and Ahmed, Zeeshan and Arnold, Kam S. and Austermann, Jason and Bender, Amy N. and Benson, Bradford A. and Bleem, Lindsey and Byrum, Karen and Carlstrom, John E. and Carter, Faustin W. and Chang, Clarence and Cho, Hsiao-Mei and Cukierman, Ari and Czaplewski, David A. and Ding, Junjia and Divan, Ralu N. S. and de Haan, Tijmen and Dobbs, Matt and Dutcher, Daniel and Everett, Wenderline and Gannon, Renae N. and Guyser, Robert J. and Halverson, Nils W. and Harrington, Nicholas L. and Hattori, Kaori and Henning, Jason W. and Hilton, Gene C. and Holzapfel, William L. and Huang, Nicholas and Irwin, Kent D. and Jeong, Oliver and Khaire, Trupti and Korman, Milo and Kubik, Donna L. and Kuo, Chao-Lin and Lee, Adrian T. and Leitch, Erik M. and Lendinez Escudero, Sergi and Meyer, Stephan S. and Miller, Christina S. and Montgomery, Joshua and Nadolski, Andrew and Natoli, Tyler J. and Nguyen, Hogan and Novosad, Valentyn and Padin, Stephen and Pan, Zhaodi and Pearson, John E. and Rahlin, Alexandra and Reichardt, Christian L. and Ruhl, John E. and Saliwanchik, Benjamin and Shirley, Ian and Sayre, James T. and Shariff, Jamil A. and Shirokoff, Erik D. and Stan, Liliana and Stark, Antony A. and Sobrin, Joshua and Story, Kyle and Suzuki, Aritoki and Tang, Qing Yang and Thakur, Ritoban B. and Thompson, Keith L. and Tucker, Carole E. and Vanderlinde, Keith and Vieira, Joaquin D. and Wang, Gensheng and Whitehorn, Nathan and Yefremenko, Volodymyr and Yoon, Ki Won},
abstractNote = {Now, detectors for cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are background limited, so a straightforward alternative to improve sensitivity is to increase the number of detectors. Large arrays of multichroic pixels constitute an economical approach to increasing the number of detectors within a given focal plane area. We present the fabrication of large arrays of dual-polarized multichroic transition-edge-sensor (TES) bolometers for the South Pole Telescope third-generation CMB receiver (SPT-3G). The complete SPT-3G receiver will have 2690 pixels, each with six detectors, allowing for individual measurement of three spectral bands (centered at 95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) in two orthogonal polarizations. In total, the SPT-3G focal plane will have 16140 detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a niobium microstrip transmission line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed to the respective Ti/Au TES sensors. Detectors are read out using a 64x frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme. The microfabrication of the SPT-3G detector arrays involves a total of 18 processes, including 13 lithography steps. Together with the fabrication process, the effect of processing on the Ti/Au TES's T-c is discussed. In addition, detectors fabricated with Ti/Au TES films with Tc between 400 mK 560 mK are presented and their thermal characteristics are evaluated. Optical characterization of the arrays is presented as well, indicating that the response of the detectors is in good agreement with the design values for all three spectral bands (95 GHz, 150 GHz, and 220 GHz). The measured optical efficiency of the detectors is between 0.3 and 0.8. Our results discussed here are extracted from a batch of research of development wafers used to develop the baseline process for the fabrication of the arrays of detectors to be deployed with the SPT-3G receiver. Results from these research and development wafers have been incorporated into the fabrication process to get the baseline fabrication process presented here. SPT-3G is scheduled to deploy to the South Pole Telescope in late 2016.},
doi = {10.1117/12.2232912},
journal = {Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering},
number = Part 1,
volume = 9914,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 7
}

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  • This work presents the procedures used by Argonne National Laboratory to fabricate large arrays of multichroic transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers for cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements. These detectors will be assembled into the focal plane for the SPT-3G camera, the third generation CMB camera to be installed in the South Pole Telescope. The complete SPT-3G camera will have approximately 2690 pixels, for a total of 16,140 TES bolometric detectors. Each pixel is comprised of a broad-band sinuous antenna coupled to a Nb microstrip line. In-line filters are used to define the different band-passes before the millimeter-wavelength signal is fed tomore » the respective Ti/Au TES bolometers. There are six TES bolometer detectors per pixel, which allow for measurements of three band-passes (95 GHz, 150 GHz and 220 GHz) and two polarizations. The steps involved in the monolithic fabrication of these detector arrays are presented here in detail. Patterns are defined using a combination of stepper and contact lithography. The misalignment between layers is kept below 200 nm. The overall fabrication involves a total of 16 processes, including reactive and magnetron sputtering, reactive ion etching, inductively coupled plasma etching and chemical etching.« less
  • A novel dual-field time-domain finite-element domain-decomposition method is presented for an efficient and broadband numerical simulation of electromagnetic properties of large finite arrays. Instead of treating the entire array as a single computation domain, the method considers each array element as a smaller subdomain and computes both the electric and magnetic fields inside each subdomain. Adjacent subdomains are related to each other by the equivalent surface currents on the subdomain interfaces in an explicit manner. Furthermore, the method exploits the identical geometry of the array elements and further reduces the memory requirement and CPU time. The proposed method is highlymore » efficient for the simulation of large finite arrays. Numerical stability and computational performance of the method are discussed. Several radiation examples are presented to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the method.« less
  • The use of large arrays of detectors has gained importance in nuclear structure studies in the past decade. These arrays have added new information for the cases of high multiplicity of radiation emitted for nuclear reaction work. They have applied the criteria to experimental measurement of radiation from the fission of actinide nuclei. The current series of experiments is designed to collect information on the prompt fission fragments arising from thermal-neutron-induced fission. The experiment uses an array of Compton-suppressed high-purity germanium detectors and fast liquid scintillation detectors to observe the radiation emitted from the induced fission of {sup 235}U andmore » {sup 239}Pu with a beam of thermal neutrons. The experiment was performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Intense Pulsed Neutron Source. A target of {approximately}2 g of uranium was used for the uranium measurement and {approximately}5 g of plutonium for the current experiment. Future experiments are planned using targets of {sup 233}U and {sup 237}Np, and the targets have been obtained. In the fission process several hundred different fragment nuclei are produced, many of which have never been studied. Because of the tight time windows enforced by the experiment's coincidence circuitry, only events involving the prompt fission fragments are collected. By building a coincidence spectrum gated on a transition in one of the prompt fragments, the authors obtain all of the coincident lines in that fragment as well as a number of transitions arising from the partner fission fragment. A coincidence matrix that is based on the time-correlated fission events of {sup 235}U has been built. One important aspect of these experiments is that several data sets of experimental data will be obtained for different fissile isotopes, but the data sets will be consistent for all isotopes studied. Within each data set for a particular fissile isotope, the data are self-consistent for all fission fragments produced. By examining the coincidence data and looking for pairs of isotopes produced in fission, precise corrections for beta decay can be made.« less
  • Experimental methods to measure the magnetic moments of short-lived excited states in beams of rare isotopes are outlined. The emphasis is on the so-called High-Velocity Transient-Field (HVTF) and the Recoil in Vacuum (RIV) methods, and the role of γ-ray detector arrays with ancillary detectors. Insights into the structure of neutron-rich nuclei through such measurements on radioactive beams are discussed. Opportunities for the future development of these techniques, for applications to both stable and radioactive beams, are explored.