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Title: Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution

Abstract

Recent development in fast pixelated detector technology has allowed a two dimensional diffraction pattern to be recorded at every probe position of a two dimensional raster scan in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), forming an information-rich four dimensional (4D) dataset. Electron ptychography has been shown to enable efficient coherent phase imaging of weakly scattering objects from a 4D dataset recorded using a focused electron probe, which is optimised for simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging and spectroscopy in STEM. Thus coherent phase contrast and incoherent Z-contrast imaging modes can be efficiently combined to provide a good sensitivity of both light and heavy elements at atomic resolution. Here, we explore the application of electron ptychography for atomic resolution imaging of strongly scattering crystalline specimens, and present experiments on imaging crystalline specimens including samples containing defects, under dynamical channelling conditions using an aberration corrected microscope. A ptychographic reconstruction method called Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) was implemented. Our experimental results and simulation results suggest that ptychography provides a readily interpretable phase image and great sensitivity for imaging light elements at atomic resolution in relatively thin crystalline materials.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [3];  [4];  [4];  [5];  [4];  [6];  [6];  [1];  [1];  [7];  [7];  [3]
  1. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Foundry
  2. Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy
  3. Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials
  4. PN Detector GmbH, Munich (Germany)
  5. PNSensor GmbH, Munich (Germany)
  6. JEOL Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
  7. Ernst Ruska Centre (ER-C) for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Julich (Germany)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1352460
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1417608
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-05CH11231
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Ultramicroscopy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 180; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0304-3991
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 4D-STEM; pixelated detectors; ptychography; phase retrieval; Wigner distribution deconvolution

Citation Formats

Yang, Hao, MacLaren, Ian, Jones, Lewys, Martinez, Gerardo T., Simson, Martin, Huth, Martin, Ryll, Henning, Soltau, Heike, Sagawa, Ryusuke, Kondo, Yukihito, Ophus, Colin, Ercius, Peter, Jin, Lei, Kovács, András, and Nellist, Peter D. Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.02.006.
Yang, Hao, MacLaren, Ian, Jones, Lewys, Martinez, Gerardo T., Simson, Martin, Huth, Martin, Ryll, Henning, Soltau, Heike, Sagawa, Ryusuke, Kondo, Yukihito, Ophus, Colin, Ercius, Peter, Jin, Lei, Kovács, András, & Nellist, Peter D. Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution. United States. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.02.006.
Yang, Hao, MacLaren, Ian, Jones, Lewys, Martinez, Gerardo T., Simson, Martin, Huth, Martin, Ryll, Henning, Soltau, Heike, Sagawa, Ryusuke, Kondo, Yukihito, Ophus, Colin, Ercius, Peter, Jin, Lei, Kovács, András, and Nellist, Peter D. Sat . "Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution". United States. doi:10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.02.006.
@article{osti_1352460,
title = {Electron ptychographic phase imaging of light elements in crystalline materials using Wigner distribution deconvolution},
author = {Yang, Hao and MacLaren, Ian and Jones, Lewys and Martinez, Gerardo T. and Simson, Martin and Huth, Martin and Ryll, Henning and Soltau, Heike and Sagawa, Ryusuke and Kondo, Yukihito and Ophus, Colin and Ercius, Peter and Jin, Lei and Kovács, András and Nellist, Peter D.},
abstractNote = {Recent development in fast pixelated detector technology has allowed a two dimensional diffraction pattern to be recorded at every probe position of a two dimensional raster scan in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), forming an information-rich four dimensional (4D) dataset. Electron ptychography has been shown to enable efficient coherent phase imaging of weakly scattering objects from a 4D dataset recorded using a focused electron probe, which is optimised for simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging and spectroscopy in STEM. Thus coherent phase contrast and incoherent Z-contrast imaging modes can be efficiently combined to provide a good sensitivity of both light and heavy elements at atomic resolution. Here, we explore the application of electron ptychography for atomic resolution imaging of strongly scattering crystalline specimens, and present experiments on imaging crystalline specimens including samples containing defects, under dynamical channelling conditions using an aberration corrected microscope. A ptychographic reconstruction method called Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) was implemented. Our experimental results and simulation results suggest that ptychography provides a readily interpretable phase image and great sensitivity for imaging light elements at atomic resolution in relatively thin crystalline materials.},
doi = {10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.02.006},
journal = {Ultramicroscopy},
number = C,
volume = 180,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1016/j.ultramic.2017.02.006

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Cited by: 1work
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  • Recent development in fast pixelated detector technology has allowed a two dimensional diffraction pattern to be recorded at every probe position of a two dimensional raster scan in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), forming an information-rich four dimensional (4D) dataset. Electron ptychography has been shown to enable efficient coherent phase imaging of weakly scattering objects from a 4D dataset recorded using a focused electron probe, which is optimised for simultaneous incoherent Z-contrast imaging and spectroscopy in STEM. Thus coherent phase contrast and incoherent Z-contrast imaging modes can be efficiently combined to provide a good sensitivity of both light andmore » heavy elements at atomic resolution. Here, we explore the application of electron ptychography for atomic resolution imaging of strongly scattering crystalline specimens, and present experiments on imaging crystalline specimens including samples containing defects, under dynamical channelling conditions using an aberration corrected microscope. A ptychographic reconstruction method called Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) was implemented. Our experimental results and simulation results suggest that ptychography provides a readily interpretable phase image and great sensitivity for imaging light elements at atomic resolution in relatively thin crystalline materials.« less
  • Wigner distribution deconvolution (WDD) is a decades-old method for recovering phase from intensity measurements. Although the technique offers an elegant linear solution to the quadratic phase retrieval problem, it has seen limited adoption due to its high computational/memory requirements and the fact that the technique often exhibits high noise sensitivity. Here, we propose a method for noise suppression in WDD via low-rank noisy matrix completion. Our technique exploits the redundancy of an object’s phase space to denoise its WDD reconstruction. We show in model calculations that our technique outperforms other WDD algorithms as well as modern iterative methods for phasemore » retrieval such as ptychography. Here, our results suggest that a class of phase retrieval techniques relying on regularized direct inversion of ptychographic datasets (instead of iterative reconstruction techniques) can provide accurate quantitative phase information in the presence of high levels of noise.« less
  • We show that an annular detector placed within the bright field cone in scanning transmission electron microscopy allows direct imaging of light elements in crystals. In contrast to common high angle annular dark field imaging, both light and heavy atom columns are visible simultaneously. In contrast to common bright field imaging, the images are directly and robustly interpretable over a large range of thicknesses. We demonstrate this through systematic simulations and present a simple physical model to obtain some insight into the scattering dynamics.
  • The recently developed Light Field Moment Imaging (LMI) is adopted to show the stereoscopic structure of the sample studied in Coherent Diffractive Imaging (CDI), where 3D image were always generated with complicated experimental procedure such as the rotation of the sample and time-consuming computation. The animation of large view angle can be generated with LMI very quickly, and the 3D structure of sample can be shown vividly. This method can find many applications for the coherent diffraction imaging with x-ray and electron beams, where a glimpse of the hierarchical structure required and the quick and simple 3D view of objectmore » is sufficient. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated theoretically and experimentally with a recently developed CDI method called Ptychographic Iterative Engine.« less
  • Cited by 6