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Title: Substrate-insensitive atomic layer deposition of plasmonic titanium nitride films

Abstract

The plasmonic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) films depend on the type of substrate when using typical deposition methods such as sputtering. We show atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiN films with very weak dependence of plasmonic properties on the substrate, which also suggests the prediction and evaluation of plasmonic performance of TiN nanostructures on arbitrary substrates under a given deposition condition. Our results also observe that substrates with more nitrogen-terminated (N-terminated) surfaces will have significant impact on the deposition rate as well as the film plasmonic properties. Furthermore, we illustrate that the plasmonic properties of ALD TiN films can be tailored by simply adjusting the deposition and/or post-deposition annealing temperatures. These characteristics and the capability of conformal coating make ALD TiN films on templates ideal for applications that require the fabrication of complex 3D plasmonic nanostructures.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [3];  [5];  [4]
  1. National Dong Hwa Univ., Hualien (Taiwan). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering
  2. Southern Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Electro-Optical Engineering
  3. Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies
  4. National Chiao Tung Univ., Tainan (Taiwan). Inst. of Photonic System
  5. Hungkuang Univ., Taichung City (Taiwan). Dept. of Biomedical Engineering
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC). Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1352380
Report Number(s):
LA-UR-17-20908
Journal ID: ISSN 2159-3930
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-06NA25396
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Optical Materials Express
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2159-3930
Publisher:
Optical Society of America (OSA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE

Citation Formats

Yu, Ing-Song, Cheng, Hsyi-En, Chang, Chun-Chieh, Lin, Yan-Wei, Chen, Hou-Tong, Wang, Yao-Chin, and Yang, Zu-Po. Substrate-insensitive atomic layer deposition of plasmonic titanium nitride films. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1364/OME.7.000777.
Yu, Ing-Song, Cheng, Hsyi-En, Chang, Chun-Chieh, Lin, Yan-Wei, Chen, Hou-Tong, Wang, Yao-Chin, & Yang, Zu-Po. Substrate-insensitive atomic layer deposition of plasmonic titanium nitride films. United States. doi:10.1364/OME.7.000777.
Yu, Ing-Song, Cheng, Hsyi-En, Chang, Chun-Chieh, Lin, Yan-Wei, Chen, Hou-Tong, Wang, Yao-Chin, and Yang, Zu-Po. Mon . "Substrate-insensitive atomic layer deposition of plasmonic titanium nitride films". United States. doi:10.1364/OME.7.000777. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352380.
@article{osti_1352380,
title = {Substrate-insensitive atomic layer deposition of plasmonic titanium nitride films},
author = {Yu, Ing-Song and Cheng, Hsyi-En and Chang, Chun-Chieh and Lin, Yan-Wei and Chen, Hou-Tong and Wang, Yao-Chin and Yang, Zu-Po},
abstractNote = {The plasmonic properties of titanium nitride (TiN) films depend on the type of substrate when using typical deposition methods such as sputtering. We show atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TiN films with very weak dependence of plasmonic properties on the substrate, which also suggests the prediction and evaluation of plasmonic performance of TiN nanostructures on arbitrary substrates under a given deposition condition. Our results also observe that substrates with more nitrogen-terminated (N-terminated) surfaces will have significant impact on the deposition rate as well as the film plasmonic properties. Furthermore, we illustrate that the plasmonic properties of ALD TiN films can be tailored by simply adjusting the deposition and/or post-deposition annealing temperatures. These characteristics and the capability of conformal coating make ALD TiN films on templates ideal for applications that require the fabrication of complex 3D plasmonic nanostructures.},
doi = {10.1364/OME.7.000777},
journal = {Optical Materials Express},
number = 3,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 06 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Feb 06 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • Titanium nitride (TiN) has been widely used in the semiconductor industry for its diffusion barrier and seed layer properties. However, it has seen limited adoption in other industries in which low temperature (<200 Degree-Sign C) deposition is a requirement. Examples of applications which require low temperature deposition are seed layers for magnetic materials in the data storage (DS) industry and seed and diffusion barrier layers for through-silicon-vias (TSV) in the MEMS industry. This paper describes a low temperature TiN process with appropriate electrical, chemical, and structural properties based on plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition method that is suitable for themore » DS and MEMS industries. It uses tetrakis-(dimethylamino)-titanium as an organometallic precursor and hydrogen (H{sub 2}) as co-reactant. This process was developed in a Veeco NEXUS Trade-Mark-Sign chemical vapor deposition tool. The tool uses a substrate rf-biased configuration with a grounded gas shower head. In this paper, the complimentary and self-limiting character of this process is demonstrated. The effects of key processing parameters including temperature, pulse time, and plasma power are investigated in terms of growth rate, stress, crystal morphology, chemical, electrical, and optical properties. Stoichiometric thin films with growth rates of 0.4-0.5 A/cycle were achieved. Low electrical resistivity (<300 {mu}{Omega} cm), high mass density (>4 g/cm{sup 3}), low stress (<250 MPa), and >85% step coverage for aspect ratio of 10:1 were realized. Wet chemical etch data show robust chemical stability of the film. The properties of the film have been optimized to satisfy industrial viability as a Ruthenium (Ru) preseed liner in potential data storage and TSV applications.« less
  • A design of experiments methodology was used to optimize the sheet resistance of titanium nitride (TiN) films produced by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) using a tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium precursor in a N{sub 2}/H{sub 2} plasma at low temperature (250 °C). At fixed chamber pressure (300 mTorr) and plasma power (300 W), the plasma duration and N{sub 2} flow rate were the most significant factors. The lowest sheet resistance values (163 Ω/sq. for a 20 nm TiN film) were obtained using plasma durations ∼40 s, N{sub 2} flow rates >60 standard cubic centimeters per minute, and purge times ∼60 s. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy datamore » revealed reduced levels of carbon contaminants in the TiN films with lowest sheet resistance (163 Ω/sq.), compared to films with higher sheet resistance (400–600 Ω/sq.) while transmission electron microscopy data showed a higher density of nanocrystallites in the low-resistance films. Further significant reductions in sheet resistance, from 163 Ω/sq. to 70 Ω/sq. for a 20 nm TiN film (corresponding resistivity ∼145 μΩ·cm), were achieved by addition of a postcycle Ar/N{sub 2} plasma step in the PE-ALD process.« less
  • The plasmonic behavior of Ag thin films produced by plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) has been investigated. We show that as-deposited flat PEALD Ag films exhibit unexpected plasmonic properties, and the plasmonic enhancement can differ markedly, depending on the microstructure of the Ag film. Electromagnetic field simulations indicate that this plasmonic behavior is due to air gaps that are an inherent property of the mosaic-like microstructure of the PEALD-grown Ag film, suggesting that this is a metamaterial with behavior very similar to what would be expected in spoof plasmonics where gaps are fabricated in films to create plasmonic-like resonances.
  • Highlights: • Ti doped ZnO films were prepared on Corning XG glass substrate by ALD. • The electrical properties and optical properties were systematically investigated. • An optimized Ti doped ZnO films had low resistivity and excellent optical transmittance. - Abstract: Titanium doped zinc oxide (Ti doped ZnO) films were prepared by atomic layer deposition methods at a deposition temperature of 200 °C. The Ti content in Ti doped ZnO films was varied from 5.08 at.% to 15.02 at.%. X-ray diffraction results indicated that the crystallinity of the Ti doped ZnO films had degraded with increasing Ti content. Transmission electronmore » microscopy was used to investigate the microstructural evolution of the Ti doped ZnO films, showing that both the grain size and crystallinity reduced with increasing Ti content. The electrical resistivity of the Ti doped ZnO films showed a minimum value of 1.6 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm with the Ti content of 6.20 at.%. Furthermore, the Ti doped ZnO films exhibited excellent transmittance.« less