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Title: Human β-defensin 4 - defensin without the "twist"

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [2]
  1. Gdansk
  2. (
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Advanced Photon Source (APS)
Sponsoring Org.:
NCI NIH FOREIGN
OSTI Identifier:
1352238
DOE Contract Number:
W-31-109-Eng-38
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Postepy Biochemii; Journal Volume: 62; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: 2016; PMID:28132490; Related Information: http://www.postepybiochemii.pl/pdf/3_2016/349-361.pdf; http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/28132490
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
ENGLISH

Citation Formats

Prahl, Adam, Pazgier, Marzena, Alexandratos, Jerry, Lubkowski, Jacek, NCI), and Maryland-MED). Human β-defensin 4 - defensin without the "twist". United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Prahl, Adam, Pazgier, Marzena, Alexandratos, Jerry, Lubkowski, Jacek, NCI), & Maryland-MED). Human β-defensin 4 - defensin without the "twist". United States.
Prahl, Adam, Pazgier, Marzena, Alexandratos, Jerry, Lubkowski, Jacek, NCI), and Maryland-MED). Mon . "Human β-defensin 4 - defensin without the "twist"". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_1352238,
title = {Human β-defensin 4 - defensin without the "twist"},
author = {Prahl, Adam and Pazgier, Marzena and Alexandratos, Jerry and Lubkowski, Jacek and NCI) and Maryland-MED)},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {Postepy Biochemii},
number = 3,
volume = 62,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Apr 17 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Here, selective inhibitors of human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) are an effective means of controlling blood sugar levels in the management of diabetes. A high-throughput screen of marine natural product extracts led to the identification of a potent (K i = 10 pM) peptidic HPA inhibitor, helianthamide, from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. Active helianthamide was produced in Escherichia coli via secretion as a barnase fusion protein. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complex of helianthamide with porcine pancreatic α-amylase revealed that helianthamide adopts a β-defensin fold and binds into and across the amylase active site, utilizing a contiguous YIYH inhibitorymore » motif. Helianthamide represents the first of a novel class of glycosidase inhibitors and provides an unusual example of functional malleability of the β-defensin fold, which is rarely seen outside of its traditional role in antimicrobial peptides.« less
  • Here, selective inhibitors of human pancreatic α-amylase (HPA) are an effective means of controlling blood sugar levels in the management of diabetes. A high-throughput screen of marine natural product extracts led to the identification of a potent (K i = 10 pM) peptidic HPA inhibitor, helianthamide, from the Caribbean sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus. Active helianthamide was produced in Escherichia coli via secretion as a barnase fusion protein. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the complex of helianthamide with porcine pancreatic α-amylase revealed that helianthamide adopts a β-defensin fold and binds into and across the amylase active site, utilizing a contiguous YIYH inhibitorymore » motif. Helianthamide represents the first of a novel class of glycosidase inhibitors and provides an unusual example of functional malleability of the β-defensin fold, which is rarely seen outside of its traditional role in antimicrobial peptides.« less
  • Defensins have a broad range of antimicrobial activity against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The expression of human {beta}-defensin-2 (hBD-2) is prevalently observed in epithelial cells and is induced by bacterial infection. Here, we have shown that the expression of the hBD-2 gene and release of hBD-2 protein into the medium is up-regulated in response to CpG-DNA in human B cell line RPMI 8226. The induction of hBD-2 was dependent on CG sequence and phosphorothioate backbone-modification. This was also confirmed in primary human lymphocytes. To shed light on the molecular mechanism involved in hBD-2 induction by CpG-DNA, we examined the contributionmore » of the NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway in RPMI 8226 cells. Suppression of MyD88 function and inhibition of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization blocked hBD-2 induction. The NF-{kappa}B pathway inhibitors also abolished hBD-2 induction. These results may contribute to a better understanding on the therapeutic effects of CpG-DNA against infectious diseases.« less
  • Defensins, a family of antimicrobial peptides isolated from several mammalian species, have a proposed functional role in innate host defense. In humans, certain defensin genes are expressed in phagocytic cells of hematopoietic origin, while others are expressed in Paneth cells, epithelial cells of the small intestine. In this study, we determined the chromosomal localization of the human defensin (HD) genes expressed in Paneth cells, HD-5 and HD-6. Analysis of a panel of human/hamster hybrids localized both HD-5 and HD-6 to chromosome 8. Southern blot analysis of DNA from cell lines that contain either chromosome 8 deletions or duplications further localizedmore » these two genes to 8p21-pter. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of metaphase chromosomes using an HD-5 probe further supported the regional map assignment. Previous studies had localized the hematopoietic genes to chromosome 8p23, and the current work is consistent with both the enteric and the myeloid defensin genes being located at the same cytogenetic region of chromosome 8. In addition, the evolutionary relationships of this gene family were addressed using dot matrix sequence analysis. From this analysis, a model for the possible evolutionary history of the human defensin genes is proposed. According to this model, an early duplication of a primordial defensin gene yielded the ancestral genes of present day HD-5 and HD-6. The model further suggests that a subsequent unequal meiotic crossover event had generated an additional gene, comprised of a hybrid of sequences from the two parental genes, and that this hybrid gene then served as the ancestor to present day hematopoietic defensin genes. 39 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • No abstract prepared.