skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.9

Abstract

We present the results of a Chandra X-ray survey of the 8 most massive galaxy clusters at z>1.2 in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg^2 survey. We combine this sample with previously-published Chandra observations of 49 massive X-ray-selected clusters at 00.2R500 scaling like E(z)^2. In the centers of clusters (r<0.1R500), we find significant deviations from self similarity (n_e ~ E(z)^{0.1+/-0.5}), consistent with no redshift dependence. When we isolate clusters with over-dense cores (i.e., cool cores), we find that the average over-density profile has not evolved with redshift -- that is, cool cores have not changed in size, density, or total mass over the past ~9-10 Gyr. We show that the evolving "cuspiness" of clusters in the X-ray, reported by several previous studies, can be understood in the context of a cool core with fixed properties embedded in a self similarly-evolving cluster. We find no measurable evolution in the X-ray morphology of massive clusters, seemingly in tension with the rapidly-rising (with redshift) rate of major mergers predicted by cosmological simulations. We show that these two results can be brought into agreement if we assume that the relaxation time after a merger is proportional to the crossing time, since the latter ismore » proportional to H(z)^(-1).« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ; ; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ORCiD logo; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
SPT
OSTI Identifier:
1352199
Report Number(s):
arXiv:1702.05094; FERMILAB-PUB-17-072-AE
Journal ID: ISSN 1538-4357; 1514000
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: The Astrophysical Journal (Online); Journal Volume: 843; Journal Issue: 1
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS

Citation Formats

McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Carlstrom, J. E., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Mantz, A. B., and Murray, S. S. The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.9. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7740.
McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Carlstrom, J. E., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Mantz, A. B., & Murray, S. S. The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.9. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7740.
McDonald, M., Allen, S. W., Bayliss, M., Benson, B. A., Bleem, L. E., Brodwin, M., Bulbul, E., Carlstrom, J. E., Forman, W. R., Hlavacek-Larrondo, J., Garmire, G. P., Gaspari, M., Gladders, M. D., Mantz, A. B., and Murray, S. S. Wed . "The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.9". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa7740. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352199.
@article{osti_1352199,
title = {The Remarkable Similarity of Massive Galaxy Clusters from z ~ 0 to z ~ 1.9},
author = {McDonald, M. and Allen, S. W. and Bayliss, M. and Benson, B. A. and Bleem, L. E. and Brodwin, M. and Bulbul, E. and Carlstrom, J. E. and Forman, W. R. and Hlavacek-Larrondo, J. and Garmire, G. P. and Gaspari, M. and Gladders, M. D. and Mantz, A. B. and Murray, S. S.},
abstractNote = {We present the results of a Chandra X-ray survey of the 8 most massive galaxy clusters at z>1.2 in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg^2 survey. We combine this sample with previously-published Chandra observations of 49 massive X-ray-selected clusters at 00.2R500 scaling like E(z)^2. In the centers of clusters (r<0.1R500), we find significant deviations from self similarity (n_e ~ E(z)^{0.1+/-0.5}), consistent with no redshift dependence. When we isolate clusters with over-dense cores (i.e., cool cores), we find that the average over-density profile has not evolved with redshift -- that is, cool cores have not changed in size, density, or total mass over the past ~9-10 Gyr. We show that the evolving "cuspiness" of clusters in the X-ray, reported by several previous studies, can be understood in the context of a cool core with fixed properties embedded in a self similarly-evolving cluster. We find no measurable evolution in the X-ray morphology of massive clusters, seemingly in tension with the rapidly-rising (with redshift) rate of major mergers predicted by cosmological simulations. We show that these two results can be brought into agreement if we assume that the relaxation time after a merger is proportional to the crossing time, since the latter is proportional to H(z)^(-1).},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/aa7740},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal (Online)},
number = 1,
volume = 843,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jun 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Jun 28 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Here, we present the results of a Chandra X-ray survey of the eight most massive galaxy clusters at z > 1.2 in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg2 survey. We combine this sample with previously published Chandra observations of 49 massive X-ray-selected clusters at 0 < z < 0.1 and 90 Sunyaev–Zel'dovich–selected clusters at 0.25 < z < 1.2 to constrain the evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM) over the past ~10 Gyr. We find that the bulk of the ICM has evolved self-similarly over the full redshift range probed here, with the ICM density atmore » $$r\gt 0.2{R}_{500}$$ scaling like $$E{(z)}^{2}$$. In the centers of clusters ($$r\lesssim 0.01{R}_{500}$$), we find significant deviations from self-similarity ($${n}_{e}\propto E{(z)}^{0.2\pm 0.5}$$), consistent with no redshift dependence. When we isolate clusters with overdense cores (i.e., cool cores), we find that the average overdensity profile has not evolved with redshift—that is, cool cores have not changed in size, density, or total mass over the past ~9–10 Gyr. We show that the evolving "cuspiness" of clusters in the X-ray, reported by several previous studies, can be understood in the context of a cool core with fixed properties embedded in a self-similarly evolving cluster. We find no measurable evolution in the X-ray morphology of massive clusters, seemingly in tension with the rapidly rising (with redshift) rate of major mergers predicted by cosmological simulations. We show that these two results can be brought into agreement if we assume that the relaxation time after a merger is proportional to the crossing time, since the latter is proportional to $$H{(z)}^{-1}$$.« less
    Cited by 3
  • We present the results of a Chandra X-ray survey of the 8 most massive galaxy clusters at z > 1.2 in the South Pole Telescope 2500 deg2 survey. We combine this sample with previously-published Chandra observations of 49 massive X-ray-selected clusters at 0 < z < 0.1 and 90 SZ-selected clusters at 0.25 < z < 1.2 to constrain the evolution of the intracluster medium (ICM) over the past ~10 Gyr. We find that the bulk of the ICM has evolved self similarly over the full redshift range probed here, with the ICM density at r > 0.2R500 scaling likemore » E(z) 2 . In the centers of clusters (r . 0.01R500), we find significant deviations from self similarity (ne ∝ E(z) 0.1±0.5 ), consistent with no redshift dependence. When we isolate clusters with over-dense cores (i.e., cool cores), we find that the average over-density profile has not evolved with redshift – that is, cool cores have not changed in size, density, or total mass over the past ~9–10 Gyr. We show that the evolving “cuspiness” of clusters in the Xray, reported by several previous studies, can be understood in the context of a cool core with fixed properties embedded in a self similarly-evolving cluster. We find no measurable evolution in the X-ray morphology of massive clusters, seemingly in tension with the rapidly-rising (with redshift) rate of major mergers predicted by cosmological simulations. We show that these two results can be brought into agreement if we assume that the relaxation time after a merger is proportional to the crossing time, since the latter is proportional to H(z) -1.« less
    Cited by 3
  • We study the stellar, brightest cluster galaxy (BCG) and intracluster medium (ICM) masses of 14 South Pole Telescope (SPT) selected galaxy clusters with median redshift z = 0.9 and mass M-500 = 6 x 10(14) M-circle dot. We estimate stellar masses for each cluster and BCG using six photometric bands, the ICM mass using X-ray observations and the virial masses using the SPT Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect signature. At z = 0.9, the BCG mass M-*(BCG) constitutes 0.12 +/- 0.01 per cent of the halo mass for a 6 x 10(14) M-circle dot cluster, and this fraction falls as M-500(-0.58 +/- 0.07).more » The cluster stellar mass function has a characteristic mass M-0 = 10(11.0 +/- 0.1) M-circle dot, and the number of galaxies per unit mass in clusters is larger than in the field by a factor of 1.65 +/- 0.20. We combine our SPT sample with previously published samples at low redshift and correct to a common initial mass function and for systematic virial mass differences. We then explore mass and redshift trends in the stellar fraction f(*), the ICM fraction f(ICM), the collapsed baryon fraction f(c) and the baryon fraction f(b). At a pivot mass of 6 x 10(14) M-circle dot and redshift z = 0.9, the characteristic values are f(*) = 1.1 +/- 0.1 per cent, f(ICM) = 9.6 +/- 0.5 per cent, f(c) = 10.7 +/- 1.1 per cent and f(b) = 10.7 +/- 0.6 per cent. These fractions all vary with cluster mass at high significance, with higher mass clusters having lower f(*) and f(c) and higher f(ICM) and f(b). When accounting for a 15 per cent systematic virial mass uncertainty, there is no statistically significant redshift trend at fixed mass. Our results support the scenario where clusters grow through accretion from subclusters (higher f(*), lower f(ICM)) and the field (lower f(*), higher f(ICM)), balancing to keep f(*) and f(ICM) approximately constant since z similar to 0.9.« less
  • We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select probable z ∼ 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg{sup 2}. Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstratingmore » the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates.« less
  • We conduct a deep mid-infrared (mid-IR) census of nine massive galaxy clusters at (0 < z < 1.3) with a total of {approx}1500 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies using Spitzer/IRAC photometry and established mid-IR color selection techniques. Of the 949 cluster galaxies that are detected in at least three of the four IRAC channels at the {>=}3{sigma} level, we identify 12 that host mid-IR-selected active galactic nuclei (IR-AGNs). To compare the IR-AGNs across our redshift range, we define two complete samples of cluster galaxies: (1) optically selected members with rest-frame V{sub AB} magnitude < - 21.5 and (2) mid-IR-selected members brightermore » than (M*{sub 3.6} + 0.5), i.e., essentially a stellar mass cut. In both samples, we measure f{sub IR-AGN} {approx} 1% with a strong upper limit of {approx}3% at z < 1. This uniformly low IR-AGN fraction at z < 1 is surprising given that the fraction of 24 {mu}m sources in the same galaxy clusters is observed to increase by about a factor of four from z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 1; this indicates that most of the detected 24 {mu}m flux is due to star formation. Only in our single galaxy cluster at z = 1.24 is the IR-AGN fraction measurably higher at {approx}15% (all members; {approx}70% for late-types only). In agreement with recent studies, we find that the cluster IR-AGNs are predominantly hosted by late-type galaxies with blue optical colors, i.e., members with recent/ongoing star formation. The four brightest IR-AGNs are also X-ray sources; these IR+X-ray AGNs all lie outside the cluster core (R{sub proj} {approx}> 0.5 Mpc) and are hosted by highly morphologically disturbed members. Although our sample is limited, our results suggest that f{sub IR-AGN} in massive galaxy clusters is not strongly correlated with star formation at z < 1 and that IR-AGNs have a more prominent role at z {approx}> 1.« less