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Title: Discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby debris disk host HR 2562

Abstract

Here, we present the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the debris disk host star HR 2562. This object, discovered with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), has a projected separation of 20.3 ± 0.3 au ($$0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 618\pm 0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 004$$) from the star. With the high astrometric precision afforded by GPI, we have confirmed, to more than 5σ, the common proper motion of HR 2562B with the star, with only a month-long time baseline between observations. Spectral data in the J-, H-, and K-bands show a morphological similarity to L/T transition objects. We assign a spectral type of L7 ± 3 to HR 2562B and derive a luminosity of log(L $${}_{\mathrm{bol}}$$/$${L}_{\odot })=-4.62\pm 0.12$$, corresponding to a mass of 30 ± 15 $${M}_{\mathrm{Jup}}$$ from evolutionary models at an estimated age of the system of 300–900 Myr. Although the uncertainty in the age of the host star is significant, the spectra and photometry exhibit several indications of youth for HR 2562B. The source has a position angle that is consistent with an orbit in the same plane as the debris disk recently resolved with Herschel. Additionally, it appears to be interior to the debris disk. Though the extent of the inner hole is currently too uncertain to place limits on the mass of HR 2562B, future observations of the disk with higher spatial resolution may be able to provide mass constraints. This is the first brown-dwarf-mass object found to reside in the inner hole of a debris disk, offering the opportunity to search for evidence of formation above the deuterium burning limit in a circumstellar disk.

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6];  [7];  [4]; ORCiD logo [8]; ORCiD logo [5]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [10];  [11];  [12];  [13];  [14];  [15]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [17]; ORCiD logo [9] more »;  [2]; ORCiD logo [9]; ORCiD logo [18];  [11]; ORCiD logo [19];  [9];  [20];  [21];  [18];  [22];  [9];  [2];  [18];  [11];  [15]; ORCiD logo [23]; ORCiD logo [24]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [25]; ORCiD logo [15]; ORCiD logo [26];  [10]; ORCiD logo [27]; ORCiD logo [4];  [10]; ORCiD logo [27]; ORCiD logo [28]; ORCiD logo [29];  [30]; ORCiD logo [4]; ORCiD logo [16]; ORCiD logo [4];  [22];  [31]; ORCiD logo [27];  [32];  [20] « less
  1. Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)
  2. Univ. de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)
  3. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. Grenoble Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France)
  4. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States)
  5. City Univ. of New York, Staten Island, NY (United States); City Univ. of New York, New York, NY (United States); American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  6. National Research Council of Canada Herzberg, Victoria, BC (Canada); Univ. of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada)
  7. SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  8. Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)
  9. Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
  10. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  11. Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States)
  12. Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  13. Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI (United States)
  14. The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)
  15. Univ. of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
  16. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)
  17. The Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)
  18. Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
  19. Durham Univ., Durham (United Kingdom); Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  20. Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)
  21. European Southern Observatory, Santiago (Chile)
  22. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, Tucson, AZ (United States)
  23. SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States)
  24. NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, CA (United States)
  25. The Univ. of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada); Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
  26. American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY (United States)
  27. Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)
  28. Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)
  29. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)
  30. Univ. of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States)
  31. California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)
  32. The Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE; National Science Foundation (NSF); National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA)
OSTI Identifier:
1352117
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-717818
Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344; AST-1518332; AST-1411868; AST-141378; AST-1211568; DGE-1232825; AST-1313132; NNX15AD95G/NEXSS; NNX15AC89G; NNX14AJ80G
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
The Astrophysical Journal. Letters
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 829; Journal Issue: 1; Journal ID: ISSN 2041-8213
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; brown dwarfs; instrumentation: adaptive optics; planet-disk interactions; stars: individual (HR 2562)

Citation Formats

Konopacky, Quinn M., Rameau, Julien, Duchêne, Gaspard, Filippazzo, Joseph C., Godfrey, Paige A. Giorla, Marois, Christian, Nielsen, Eric L., Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rice, Emily L., Wang, Jason J., Ammons, S. Mark, Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Bruzzone, Sebastian, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Cotten, Tara, Dawson, Rebekah I., De Rosa, Robert J., Doyon, René, Esposito, Thomas M., Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li -Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Lafrenière, David, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce A., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marley, Mark S., Matthews, Brenda C., Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David W., Patience, Jenny, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa A., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., and Wolff, Schuyler G. Discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby debris disk host HR 2562. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L4.
Konopacky, Quinn M., Rameau, Julien, Duchêne, Gaspard, Filippazzo, Joseph C., Godfrey, Paige A. Giorla, Marois, Christian, Nielsen, Eric L., Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rice, Emily L., Wang, Jason J., Ammons, S. Mark, Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Bruzzone, Sebastian, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Cotten, Tara, Dawson, Rebekah I., De Rosa, Robert J., Doyon, René, Esposito, Thomas M., Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li -Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Lafrenière, David, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce A., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marley, Mark S., Matthews, Brenda C., Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David W., Patience, Jenny, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa A., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., & Wolff, Schuyler G. Discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby debris disk host HR 2562. United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L4.
Konopacky, Quinn M., Rameau, Julien, Duchêne, Gaspard, Filippazzo, Joseph C., Godfrey, Paige A. Giorla, Marois, Christian, Nielsen, Eric L., Pueyo, Laurent, Rafikov, Roman R., Rice, Emily L., Wang, Jason J., Ammons, S. Mark, Bailey, Vanessa P., Barman, Travis S., Bulger, Joanna, Bruzzone, Sebastian, Chilcote, Jeffrey K., Cotten, Tara, Dawson, Rebekah I., De Rosa, Robert J., Doyon, René, Esposito, Thomas M., Fitzgerald, Michael P., Follette, Katherine B., Goodsell, Stephen, Graham, James R., Greenbaum, Alexandra Z., Hibon, Pascale, Hung, Li -Wei, Ingraham, Patrick, Kalas, Paul, Lafrenière, David, Larkin, James E., Macintosh, Bruce A., Maire, Jérôme, Marchis, Franck, Marley, Mark S., Matthews, Brenda C., Metchev, Stanimir, Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A., Oppenheimer, Rebecca, Palmer, David W., Patience, Jenny, Perrin, Marshall D., Poyneer, Lisa A., Rajan, Abhijith, Rantakyrö, Fredrik T., Savransky, Dmitry, Schneider, Adam C., Sivaramakrishnan, Anand, Song, Inseok, Soummer, Remi, Thomas, Sandrine, Wallace, J. Kent, Ward-Duong, Kimberly, Wiktorowicz, Sloane J., and Wolff, Schuyler G. 2016. "Discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby debris disk host HR 2562". United States. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L4. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352117.
@article{osti_1352117,
title = {Discovery of a substellar companion to the nearby debris disk host HR 2562},
author = {Konopacky, Quinn M. and Rameau, Julien and Duchêne, Gaspard and Filippazzo, Joseph C. and Godfrey, Paige A. Giorla and Marois, Christian and Nielsen, Eric L. and Pueyo, Laurent and Rafikov, Roman R. and Rice, Emily L. and Wang, Jason J. and Ammons, S. Mark and Bailey, Vanessa P. and Barman, Travis S. and Bulger, Joanna and Bruzzone, Sebastian and Chilcote, Jeffrey K. and Cotten, Tara and Dawson, Rebekah I. and De Rosa, Robert J. and Doyon, René and Esposito, Thomas M. and Fitzgerald, Michael P. and Follette, Katherine B. and Goodsell, Stephen and Graham, James R. and Greenbaum, Alexandra Z. and Hibon, Pascale and Hung, Li -Wei and Ingraham, Patrick and Kalas, Paul and Lafrenière, David and Larkin, James E. and Macintosh, Bruce A. and Maire, Jérôme and Marchis, Franck and Marley, Mark S. and Matthews, Brenda C. and Metchev, Stanimir and Millar-Blanchaer, Maxwell A. and Oppenheimer, Rebecca and Palmer, David W. and Patience, Jenny and Perrin, Marshall D. and Poyneer, Lisa A. and Rajan, Abhijith and Rantakyrö, Fredrik T. and Savransky, Dmitry and Schneider, Adam C. and Sivaramakrishnan, Anand and Song, Inseok and Soummer, Remi and Thomas, Sandrine and Wallace, J. Kent and Ward-Duong, Kimberly and Wiktorowicz, Sloane J. and Wolff, Schuyler G.},
abstractNote = {Here, we present the discovery of a brown dwarf companion to the debris disk host star HR 2562. This object, discovered with the Gemini Planet Imager (GPI), has a projected separation of 20.3 ± 0.3 au ($0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 618\pm 0\buildrel{\prime\prime}\over{.} 004$) from the star. With the high astrometric precision afforded by GPI, we have confirmed, to more than 5σ, the common proper motion of HR 2562B with the star, with only a month-long time baseline between observations. Spectral data in the J-, H-, and K-bands show a morphological similarity to L/T transition objects. We assign a spectral type of L7 ± 3 to HR 2562B and derive a luminosity of log(L ${}_{\mathrm{bol}}$/${L}_{\odot })=-4.62\pm 0.12$, corresponding to a mass of 30 ± 15 ${M}_{\mathrm{Jup}}$ from evolutionary models at an estimated age of the system of 300–900 Myr. Although the uncertainty in the age of the host star is significant, the spectra and photometry exhibit several indications of youth for HR 2562B. The source has a position angle that is consistent with an orbit in the same plane as the debris disk recently resolved with Herschel. Additionally, it appears to be interior to the debris disk. Though the extent of the inner hole is currently too uncertain to place limits on the mass of HR 2562B, future observations of the disk with higher spatial resolution may be able to provide mass constraints. This is the first brown-dwarf-mass object found to reside in the inner hole of a debris disk, offering the opportunity to search for evidence of formation above the deuterium burning limit in a circumstellar disk.},
doi = {10.3847/2041-8205/829/1/L4},
journal = {The Astrophysical Journal. Letters},
number = 1,
volume = 829,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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