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Title: BiI 3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy

Abstract

BiI 3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI 3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI 3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI 3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI 3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI 3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI 3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE)
OSTI Identifier:
1352061
Report Number(s):
13-4855
13-4855
DOE Contract Number:
NE0000730
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL, AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY

Citation Formats

Nino, Juan C., Baciak, James, Johns, Paul, Sulekar, Soumitra, Totten, James, and Nimmagadda, Jyothir. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1352061.
Nino, Juan C., Baciak, James, Johns, Paul, Sulekar, Soumitra, Totten, James, & Nimmagadda, Jyothir. BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy. United States. doi:10.2172/1352061.
Nino, Juan C., Baciak, James, Johns, Paul, Sulekar, Soumitra, Totten, James, and Nimmagadda, Jyothir. Wed . "BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy". United States. doi:10.2172/1352061. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352061.
@article{osti_1352061,
title = {BiI3 Crystals for High Energy Resolution Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy},
author = {Nino, Juan C. and Baciak, James and Johns, Paul and Sulekar, Soumitra and Totten, James and Nimmagadda, Jyothir},
abstractNote = {BiI3 had been investigated for its unique properties as a layered compound semiconductor for many decades. However, despite the exceptional atomic, physical, and electronic properties of this material, good resolution gamma ray spectra had never been reported for BiI3. The shortcomings that previously prevented BiI3 from reaching success as a gamma ray sensor were, through this project, identified and suppressed to unlock the performance of this promising compound. Included in this work were studies on a number of methods which have, for the first time, enabled BiI3 to exhibit spectral performance rivaling many other candidate semiconductors for room temperature gamma ray sensors. New approaches to crystal growth were explored that allow BiI3 spectrometers to be fabricated with up to 2.2% spectral resolution at 662 keV. Fundamental studies on trap states, dopant incorporation, and polarization were performed to enhance performance of this compound. Additionally, advanced detection techniques were applied to display the capabilities of high quality BiI3 spectrometers. Overall, through this work, BiI3 has been revealed as a potentially transformative material for nuclear security and radiation detection sciences.},
doi = {10.2172/1352061},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Apr 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Apr 12 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • A high resolution X-ray spectrometer and large area phoswich detector were designed and co-aligned in a common elevation mounting in order to measure solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma ray emission in the 13 to 600 KeV energy range from a balloon. The instrument is described and results obtained for the Crab Nebula, the supernova remnant Cas A, and the Sun are discussed and analyzed.
  • Over the past 2 years, we have been studying the use of Hot Electron Tunneling sensors for use in high-energy-resolution x-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers. These sensors promise several advantages over existing cryogenic sensors, including simultaneous high count rate and high resolution capability, and relative ease of use. Using simple shadow mask lithography, we verified the basic principles of operation of these devices and discovered new physics in their thermal behavior as a function applied voltage bias. We also began to develop ways to use this new sensor in practical x-ray and gamma-ray detectors based on superconducting absorbers. This requires themore » use of quasiparticle trapping to concentrate the signal in the sensing elements.« less
  • A balloon-borne X- and gamma-ray instrument was developed, fabricated, and flown. This instrument has the highest energy resolution of any instrument flown to date for measurements of solar and cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray emission in the 13 to 600 keV energy range. The purpose of the solar measurements was to study electron acceleration and solar flare energy release processes. The cosmic observations were to search for cyclotron line features from neutron stars and for low energy gamma-ray lines from nucleosynthesis. The instrument consists of four 4 cm diameter, 1.3 cm thick, planar intrinsic germanium detectors cooled by liquid nitrogen andmore » surrounded by CsI and NaI anti-coincidence scintillation crystals. A graded z collimator limited the field of view to 3 deg x 6 deg and a gondola pointing system provided 0.3 deg pointing accuracy. A total of four flights were made with this instrument. Additional funding was obtained from NSF for the last three flights, which had primarily solar objectives. A detailed instrument description is given. The main scientific results and the data analysis are discussed. Current work and indications for future work are summarized. A bibliography of publications resulting from this work is given.« less