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Title: Phonon Sensor Dynamics for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

Abstract

Understanding the quasiparticle diffusion process inside sputtered aluminum (Al thin films (~ 0.1-1 μm is critical for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS experiment to further optimize its detectors to directly search for dark matter. An initial study with Al films was undertaken by our group ~ 20 years ago, but some important questions were not answered at the time. This thesis can be considered a continuation of that critical study. The CDMS experiment utilizes high purity silicon and germanium crystals to simultaneously measure ionization and phonons created by particle interactions. In addition to describing some of the rich physics involved in simultaneously detecting ionization and phonons with a CDMS detector, this thesis focuses on the detailed physics of the phonon sensors themselves, which are patterned onto CDMS detector surfaces. CDMS detectors use thin sputtered Al films to collect phonon energy when it propagates to the surfaces of the detector crystals. The phonon energy breaks Cooper pairs and creates quasiparticles (qps). These qps diffuse until they get trapped in an proximitized “overlap” region where lower-Tc tungsten films connect to the Al film. These tungsten films are the transition edge sensors (W-TESs CDMS uses to readout phonon signals. We performed amore » wide range of experiments using several sets of test devices designed and fabricated specifically for this work. The devices were used mostly to study quasiparticle (qp transport in Al films and qp transmission through Al/W interfaces. The results of this work are being used to optimize the design of detectors for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. This thesis is intended for CDMS collaborators who are interested in knowing more about the detailed fundamentals of how our phonon sensors work so they can take full advantage of their benefits. However, this work can also be read by general readers who are interested in particle detection using TES technology. This thesis contains eight chapters. The first chapter gives basic background information about dark matter and searches for it. We then describe the basic CDMS detector technology in Chapter two. Chapter three focuses on superconductivity and explains some of the solid state physic most relevant to our Al and W film studies. We then turn our attention to the fabrication processes used to make test devices, and describe some of the studies done to characterize our W and Al film properties. Chapter five explains the experimental setup including how a 3He/4He dilution refrigerator works, and how our electronics were configured. We then get to chapter six where we present key experimental results. Chapter seven covers the TES model we used for our test devices to simulate the data pulse shapes and reconstruct the pulse energies. We also describe the diffusion models used to fit our data. Finally, we end with a short summary of our findings and provide a few suggestions for future studies.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Stanford Univ., CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
OSTI Identifier:
1352050
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-THESIS-2015-43
1452743
DOE Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Thesis/Dissertation
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Yen, Jeffrey. Phonon Sensor Dynamics for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.2172/1352050.
Yen, Jeffrey. Phonon Sensor Dynamics for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment. United States. doi:10.2172/1352050.
Yen, Jeffrey. Thu . "Phonon Sensor Dynamics for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment". United States. doi:10.2172/1352050. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1352050.
@article{osti_1352050,
title = {Phonon Sensor Dynamics for Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment},
author = {Yen, Jeffrey},
abstractNote = {Understanding the quasiparticle diffusion process inside sputtered aluminum (Al thin films (~ 0.1-1 μm is critical for the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS experiment to further optimize its detectors to directly search for dark matter. An initial study with Al films was undertaken by our group ~ 20 years ago, but some important questions were not answered at the time. This thesis can be considered a continuation of that critical study. The CDMS experiment utilizes high purity silicon and germanium crystals to simultaneously measure ionization and phonons created by particle interactions. In addition to describing some of the rich physics involved in simultaneously detecting ionization and phonons with a CDMS detector, this thesis focuses on the detailed physics of the phonon sensors themselves, which are patterned onto CDMS detector surfaces. CDMS detectors use thin sputtered Al films to collect phonon energy when it propagates to the surfaces of the detector crystals. The phonon energy breaks Cooper pairs and creates quasiparticles (qps). These qps diffuse until they get trapped in an proximitized “overlap” region where lower-Tc tungsten films connect to the Al film. These tungsten films are the transition edge sensors (W-TESs CDMS uses to readout phonon signals. We performed a wide range of experiments using several sets of test devices designed and fabricated specifically for this work. The devices were used mostly to study quasiparticle (qp transport in Al films and qp transmission through Al/W interfaces. The results of this work are being used to optimize the design of detectors for SuperCDMS SNOLAB. This thesis is intended for CDMS collaborators who are interested in knowing more about the detailed fundamentals of how our phonon sensors work so they can take full advantage of their benefits. However, this work can also be read by general readers who are interested in particle detection using TES technology. This thesis contains eight chapters. The first chapter gives basic background information about dark matter and searches for it. We then describe the basic CDMS detector technology in Chapter two. Chapter three focuses on superconductivity and explains some of the solid state physic most relevant to our Al and W film studies. We then turn our attention to the fabrication processes used to make test devices, and describe some of the studies done to characterize our W and Al film properties. Chapter five explains the experimental setup including how a 3He/4He dilution refrigerator works, and how our electronics were configured. We then get to chapter six where we present key experimental results. Chapter seven covers the TES model we used for our test devices to simulate the data pulse shapes and reconstruct the pulse energies. We also describe the diffusion models used to fit our data. Finally, we end with a short summary of our findings and provide a few suggestions for future studies.},
doi = {10.2172/1352050},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2015},
month = {Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 2015}
}

Thesis/Dissertation:
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