skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform

Abstract

Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content ofmore » cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES); National Science Foundation (NSF)
OSTI Identifier:
1351925
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1411578
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC02-05CH11231; P01HG000205
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Journal Volume: 114 Journal Issue: 18; Journal ID: ISSN 0027-8424
Publisher:
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; wearable; biosensors; noninvasive; iontophoresis; personalized medicine

Citation Formats

Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, and Davis, Ronald W. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1073/pnas.1701740114.
Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, & Davis, Ronald W. Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform. United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701740114
Emaminejad, Sam, Gao, Wei, Wu, Eric, Davies, Zoe A., Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin, Challa, Samyuktha, Ryan, Sean P., Fahad, Hossain M., Chen, Kevin, Shahpar, Ziba, Talebi, Salmonn, Milla, Carlos, Javey, Ali, and Davis, Ronald W. Mon . "Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform". United States. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701740114.
@article{osti_1351925,
title = {Autonomous sweat extraction and analysis applied to cystic fibrosis and glucose monitoring using a fully integrated wearable platform},
author = {Emaminejad, Sam and Gao, Wei and Wu, Eric and Davies, Zoe A. and Yin Yin Nyein, Hnin and Challa, Samyuktha and Ryan, Sean P. and Fahad, Hossain M. and Chen, Kevin and Shahpar, Ziba and Talebi, Salmonn and Milla, Carlos and Javey, Ali and Davis, Ronald W.},
abstractNote = {Perspiration-based wearable biosensors facilitate continuous monitoring of individuals' health states with real-time and molecular-level insight. The inherent inaccessibility of sweat in sedentary individuals in large volume (≥10 μL) for on-demand and in situ analysis has limited our ability to capitalize on this noninvasive and rich source of information. A wearable and miniaturized iontophoresis interface is an excellent solution to overcome this barrier. The iontophoresis process involves delivery of stimulating agonists to the sweat glands with the aid of an electrical current. The challenge remains in devising an iontophoresis interface that can extract sufficient amount of sweat for robust sensing, without electrode corrosion and burning/causing discomfort in subjects. Here, we overcame this challenge through realizing an electrochemically enhanced iontophoresis interface, integrated in a wearable sweat analysis platform. This interface can be programmed to induce sweat with various secretion profiles for real-time analysis, a capability which can be exploited to advance our knowledge of the sweat gland physiology and the secretion process. To demonstrate the clinical value of our platform, human subject studies were performed in the context of the cystic fibrosis diagnosis and preliminary investigation of the blood/sweat glucose correlation. With our platform, we detected the elevated sweat electrolyte content of cystic fibrosis patients compared with that of healthy control subjects. Furthermore, our results indicate that oral glucose consumption in the fasting state is followed by increased glucose levels in both sweat and blood. In conclusion, our solution opens the possibility for a broad range of noninvasive diagnostic and general population health monitoring applications.},
doi = {10.1073/pnas.1701740114},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/1351925}, journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},
issn = {0027-8424},
number = 18,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1701740114

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 16 works
Citation information provided by
Web of Science

Save / Share:

Works referenced in this record:

User-interactive electronic skin for instantaneous pressure visualization
journal, July 2013


Toward Flexible and Wearable Human-Interactive Health-Monitoring Devices
journal, November 2014


Soft Microfluidic Assemblies of Sensors, Circuits, and Radios for the Skin
journal, April 2014


An ultra-lightweight design for imperceptible plastic electronics
journal, July 2013


Correlation Between Sweat Glucose and Blood Glucose in Subjects with Diabetes
journal, May 2012


A wearable electrochemical sensor for the real-time measurement of sweat sodium concentration
journal, January 2010


Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis: Consensus Guidelines from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation
journal, February 2017


Fully integrated wearable sensor arrays for multiplexed in situ perspiration analysis
journal, January 2016


Epidermal Electronics
journal, August 2011


Wearable Chemical Sensors: Present Challenges and Future Prospects
journal, March 2016


Early determination of cystic fibrosis by electrochemical chloride quantification in sweat
journal, February 2009


A novel gel based vehicle for the delivery of acetylcholine in quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing
journal, October 2009


Noninvasive Alcohol Monitoring Using a Wearable Tattoo-Based Iontophoretic-Biosensing System
journal, July 2016


The significance of sweat Cl/Na ratio in patients with borderline sweat test
journal, December 1995


25th Anniversary Article: The Evolution of Electronic Skin (E-Skin): A Brief History, Design Considerations, and Recent Progress
journal, October 2013


Epidermal tattoo potentiometric sodium sensors with wireless signal transduction for continuous non-invasive sweat monitoring
journal, April 2014


Tattoo-Based Noninvasive Glucose Monitoring: A Proof-of-Concept Study
journal, December 2014


A wearable chemical–electrophysiological hybrid biosensing system for real-time health and fitness monitoring
journal, May 2016


Printed Carbon Nanotube Electronics and Sensor Systems
journal, February 2016


A skin-inspired organic digital mechanoreceptor
journal, October 2015


Wearable Microsensor Array for Multiplexed Heavy Metal Monitoring of Body Fluids
journal, May 2016


A graphene-based electrochemical device with thermoresponsive microneedles for diabetes monitoring and therapy
journal, March 2016


A Wearable Electrochemical Platform for Noninvasive Simultaneous Monitoring of Ca 2+ and pH
journal, July 2016


Adhesive RFID Sensor Patch for Monitoring of Sweat Electrolytes
journal, June 2015


    Works referencing / citing this record:

    A Generic Soft Encapsulation Strategy for Stretchable Electronics
    journal, January 2019


    Microparticle‐Based Soft Electronic Devices: Toward One‐Particle/One‐Pixel
    journal, May 2019


    The Era of Digital Health: A Review of Portable and Wearable Affinity Biosensors
    journal, November 2019


    Emerging Soft Conductors for Bioelectronic Interfaces
    journal, November 2019


    Recent Advances in Wearable Transdermal Delivery Systems
    journal, January 2018


    Methylxanthine Drug Monitoring with Wearable Sweat Sensors
    journal, April 2018


    Disposable Sensors in Diagnostics, Food, and Environmental Monitoring
    journal, May 2019


    Nanomaterial‐Enabled Flexible and Stretchable Sensing Systems: Processing, Integration, and Applications
    journal, August 2019


    Disruptive, Soft, Wearable Sensors
    journal, November 2019


    A New Frontier of Printed Electronics: Flexible Hybrid Electronics
    journal, April 2020


    Cyber–Physiochemical Interfaces
    journal, January 2020


    Bioinspired Kirigami Fish-Based Highly Stretched Wearable Biosensor for Human Biochemical-Physiological Hybrid Monitoring
    journal, January 2018


    Multifunctional Skin-Inspired Flexible Sensor Systems for Wearable Electronics
    journal, January 2019


    Telecommunications and Data Processing in Flexible Electronic Systems
    journal, November 2019


    Simultaneous Monitoring of Sweat and Interstitial Fluid Using a Single Wearable Biosensor Platform
    journal, August 2018


    Engineering Precision Medicine
    journal, October 2018


    Skin‐Inspired Electronics and Its Applications in Advanced Intelligent Systems
    journal, August 2019


    Printed Organic Transistor‐Based Enzyme Sensor for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Wearable Healthcare Applications
    journal, October 2018


    Wearable Platform for Real-time Monitoring of Sodium in Sweat
    journal, April 2018


    Wearable Sweat Sensors: Background and Current Trends
    journal, December 2018


    Recent applications of paper‐based point‐of‐care devices for biomarker detection
    journal, October 2019


    Advanced Wearable Microfluidic Sensors for Healthcare Monitoring
    journal, October 2019


    Application of Microfluidics in Wearable Devices
    journal, November 2019


    Fully integrated wearable impedance cytometry platform on flexible circuit board with online smartphone readout
    journal, July 2018


    Wearable biosensors for healthcare monitoring
    journal, February 2019


    A laser-engraved wearable sensor for sensitive detection of uric acid and tyrosine in sweat
    journal, November 2019


    Noninvasive Sweat-Lactate Biosensor Emplsoying a Hydrogel-Based Touch Pad
    journal, July 2019


    Wearable sensors for monitoring the internal and external workload of the athlete
    journal, July 2019


    Wearable sensors for monitoring the physiological and biochemical profile of the athlete
    journal, July 2019


    Wearable sweat sensors
    journal, March 2018


    Wearable and flexible electronics for continuous molecular monitoring
    journal, January 2019


    Challenges and perspectives in continuous glucose monitoring
    journal, January 2018


    Rapid and sensitive detection of drugs of abuse in sweat by multiplexed capillary based immuno-biosensors
    journal, January 2020


    A wearable electrofluidic actuation system
    journal, January 2019


    Construction of a flexible electrochemiluminescence platform for sweat detection
    journal, January 2019


    Emerging intraoral biosensors
    journal, January 2020


    Design, mechanics, and operation of spiral-interconnect based networked sensor for stretchable electronics
    journal, October 2019


    Full fabric sensing network with large deformation for continuous detection of skin temperature
    journal, September 2018


    Wireless smartphone-assisted personal healthcare monitoring system using a MoS 2 -based flexible, wearable and ultra-low-cost functional sensor
    journal, April 2019


    Wearable flexible sweat sensors for healthcare monitoring: a review
    journal, October 2019


    Skin-interfaced systems for sweat collection and analytics
    journal, February 2018


    Regional and correlative sweat analysis using high-throughput microfluidic sensing patches toward decoding sweat
    journal, August 2019


    Integrated textile sensor patch for real-time and multiplex sweat analysis
    journal, November 2019


    Flexible and stretchable inorganic optoelectronics
    journal, January 2019


    Amperometric biosensing system directly powered by button cell battery for lactate
    journal, March 2019


    Flexible substrate sensors for multiplex biomarker monitoring
    journal, July 2018


    Wearables and the medical revolution
    journal, September 2018


    Textile-Based Potentiometric Electrochemical pH Sensor for Wearable Applications
    journal, January 2019


    CMOS Interfaces for Internet-of-Wearables Electrochemical Sensors: Trends and Challenges
    journal, January 2019


    Contact-Lens Biosensors
    journal, August 2018


    Wearable Potentiometric Sensors for Medical Applications
    journal, January 2019


    Recent Advances in Skin Chemical Sensors
    journal, October 2019