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Title: Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint

Abstract

Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Solar Energy Technologies Office (EE-4S)
OSTI Identifier:
1351851
Report Number(s):
NREL/CP-5D00-67737
DOE Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Presented at the IEEE Green Technologies Conference, 29-31 March 2017, Denver, Colorado
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
14 SOLAR ENERGY; 24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; WECC; high PV penetration; PV projection; frequency response

Citation Formats

Tan, Jin, Zhang, Yingchen, Veda, Santosh, Elgindy, Tarek, and Liu, Yilu. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1109/GreenTech.2017.51.
Tan, Jin, Zhang, Yingchen, Veda, Santosh, Elgindy, Tarek, & Liu, Yilu. Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint. United States. doi:10.1109/GreenTech.2017.51.
Tan, Jin, Zhang, Yingchen, Veda, Santosh, Elgindy, Tarek, and Liu, Yilu. Tue . "Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint". United States. doi:10.1109/GreenTech.2017.51. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1351851.
@article{osti_1351851,
title = {Developing High PV Penetration Cases for Frequency Response Study of U.S. Western Interconnection: Preprint},
author = {Tan, Jin and Zhang, Yingchen and Veda, Santosh and Elgindy, Tarek and Liu, Yilu},
abstractNote = {Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interest to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.},
doi = {10.1109/GreenTech.2017.51},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Apr 11 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Tue Apr 11 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Conference:
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  • Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interestmore » to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.« less
  • Recent large penetrations of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation and the inertial characteristics of inverter-based generation technologies have caught the attention of those in the electric power industry in the United States. This paper presents a systematic approach to developing test cases of high penetrations of PV for the Western Interconnection. First, to examine the accuracy of the base case model, the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) model is validated by using measurement data from synchronized phasor measurement units. Based on the 2022 Light Spring case, we developed four high PV penetration cases for the WECC system that are of interestmore » to the industry: 5% PV+15 % wind, 25% PV+15% wind, 45% PV+15% wind, 65% PV+15% wind). Additionally, a method to project PV is proposed that is based on collected, realistic PV distribution information, including the current and future PV power plant locations and penetrations in the WECC system. Both the utility-scale PV plant and residential rooftop PV are included in this study.« less
  • The addition of large amounts of wind and solar generation to bulk power systems that are traditionally subject to operating constraints set by transient stability and frequency response limitations is the subject of considerable concern in the industry. The US Western Interconnection (WI) is expected to experience substantial additional growth in both wind and solar generation. These plants will, to some extent, displace large central station thermal generation, both coal and gas-fired, which have traditionally helped maintain stability. This paper reports the results of a study that investigated the transient stability and frequency response of the WI with high penetrationsmore » of wind and solar generation. The main goals of this work were to (1) create a realistic, baseline model of the WI, (2) test selected transient stability and frequency events, (3) investigate the impact of large amounts of wind and solar generation, and (4) examine means to improve performance.« less
  • Our study explores the impact of high-photovoltaic (PV) penetration on the inter-area oscillation modes of large-scale power grids. A series of dynamic models with various PV penetration levels are developed based on a detailed model representing the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). Transient simulations are performed to investigate the change of inter-area oscillation modes with PV penetration. The impact of PV control strategies and parameter settings on inter-area oscillations is studied. This paper finds that as PV increases, the damping of the dominant oscillation mode decreases monotonically. We also observed that the mode shape varies with the PV control strategy andmore » new oscillation modes may emerge under inappropriate parameter settings in PV plant controls.« less
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