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Title: Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant

Abstract

Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the outputmore » of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five isomers of the PFT PDCH (mtPDCH, pcPDCH, otPDCH, mcPDCH, and ptPDCH). These isomers were quantified in the low concentration samples in the Alpha test and in all samples in the Bravo test. The best estimates of UI (Rui) for the four zones are provided in Table ES-1. For the CB, this estimate averages the four tracers at the four elevations. For the CR, this estimate uses the four sampling units located in the Control Room.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [1]
  1. Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1351744
Report Number(s):
BNL-113761-2017-IR
R&D Project: 84070; 456160031
DOE Contract Number:
SC00112704
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Sullivan, T. M., Wilke, R. J., Roberts, T., and Vignato, G. J.. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1351744.
Sullivan, T. M., Wilke, R. J., Roberts, T., & Vignato, G. J.. Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. United States. doi:10.2172/1351744.
Sullivan, T. M., Wilke, R. J., Roberts, T., and Vignato, G. J.. Wed . "Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant". United States. doi:10.2172/1351744. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1351744.
@article{osti_1351744,
title = {Atmospheric Tracer Depletion Testing for Unfiltered Air In-Leakage Determination at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant},
author = {Sullivan, T. M. and Wilke, R. J. and Roberts, T. and Vignato, G. J.},
abstractNote = {Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration system in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference. Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five isomers of the PFT PDCH (mtPDCH, pcPDCH, otPDCH, mcPDCH, and ptPDCH). These isomers were quantified in the low concentration samples in the Alpha test and in all samples in the Bravo test. The best estimates of UI (Rui) for the four zones are provided in Table ES-1. For the CB, this estimate averages the four tracers at the four elevations. For the CR, this estimate uses the four sampling units located in the Control Room.},
doi = {10.2172/1351744},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • Atmospheric Tracer Depletion tests were conducted at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant to quantify the unfiltered in-leakage (UI) into the Control Room (CR), Control Building (CB), and Equipment Rooms (ER) at the Wolf Creek Nuclear Power Plant. Wolf Creek has two independent charcoal filter Emergency Ventilation Systems (EVS) that can be used to purify air entering the control building and control room. The Bravo System contains a filtration system in Room 1501 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02B) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building. The Alpha system contains a filtration systemmore » in Room 1512 in the Auxiliary Building for the Control Room and another filtration system (FGK02A) on Elevation 2016 for the Control Building.The Atmospheric Tracer Depletion (ATD) test is a technique to measure in-leakage using the concentration of perfluorocarbon compounds that have a constant atmospheric background. These levels are present in the Control Room and Control Building under normal operating conditions. When air is supplied by either of the EVS, most of the PFTS are removed by the charcoal filters. If the concentrations of the PFTs measured in protected areas are the same as the levels at the output of the EVS, the in-leakage of outside air into the protected area would be zero. If the concentration is higher in the protected area than at the output of the filter system, there is in-leakage and the in-leakage can be quantified by the difference.Sampling was performed using state-of-the-art Brookhaven Atmospheric Tracer Samplers (BATS) air sampling equipment and analysis performed on Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) dedicated PFT analytical systems. In the Alpha test two tracers PMCH and mcPDCH were used to determine in-leakage into the control building. The analytical system was tuned to maximize sensitivity after initial analysis of the Alpha test. The increased sensitivity permitted accurate quantification of five isomers of the PFT PDCH (mtPDCH, pcPDCH, otPDCH, mcPDCH, and ptPDCH). These isomers were quantified in the low concentration samples in the Alpha test and in all samples in the Bravo test.The best estimates of UI (Rui) for the four zones are provided in Table ES-1. For the CB, this estimate averages the four tracers at the four elevations. For the CR, this estimate uses the four sampling units located in the Control Room.« less
  • The results of experiments conducted in 1977 and 1978 designed to measure the effect of emissions from coal-fired power plants on crop productivity are presented. The objective of this investigation was to characterize and quantify the relationship among sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) exposure, visual symptoms of injury, and yield of crops that are economically important to the southeastern United States. Emphasis was placed on soybeans and wheat, representing a warm-season and a cool-season crop respectively. One objective of this investigation was to quantify the relationship between the amount of foliar injury resulting from SO/sub 2/ exposure and crop yield. Duringmore » the two growing seasons, soybeans developed visual symptoms that were attributed to SO/sub 2/ injury in only one exposed plot in 1978 and wheat showed no visual injury from SO/sub 2/ exposure. A tall stack and SO/sub 2/ emission control devices were put into operation at the Widows Creek power plant after this experiment was sited on Sand Mountain. Ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations were reduced, and acute SO/sub 2/ exposures to crops have been rare. The single observance of slight injury to soybean foliage and the complete lack of observable SO/sub 2/ injury symptoms on wheat have prevented quantification of the relationship between degree of foliar injury and yield. Soybean and wheat yields on plots exposed to SO/sub 2/ were not significantly different from those on plots with the air pollution exclusion system operating indicating that yield reductions did not occur without visual foliar injury and chronic exposure to SO/sub 2/ did not cause a reduction in crop yield under the conditions of this experiment.« less
  • A series of 12 airborne plume sampling experiments was conducted in the Widows Creek Steam Plant plume. The principal purpose of these experiments was to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of the plume from the wet limestone sulfur dioxide scrubber unit. The average sulfate formation rate determined for these experiments was approximately 1.7 percent per hour (% h/sup -1/). The average nitrate formation rate measured by removal of nitrogen oxides was in excess of 30% h/sup -1/. Little, if any, chemical reactivity difference was observed between the partially scrubbed plume and the totally unscrubbed plume. The data from these measurements indicatemore » the possibility of a strong influence from solar radiation on the atmospheric chemistry. On one day of this study, net ozone production was observed in the plume. This ozone formation in the plume was attributed to the mixing of the power plant plume with a highly polluted air mass possibly transported from a large metropolitan area, such as Chattanooga, Tennessee. The results agree basically with many other recent power plant plume studies and several recently developed mathematical plume simulation models.« less
  • This report describes the field tests made with sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas to measure leakage ventilation in a multilevel, multivein, hardrock mine. The tests demonstrated that the equipment and methods developed by the Bureau of Mines could be used successfully in measuring recirculation and leakage in complicated ventilation circuits. The results show that the technique can be useful in planning escapeways. The sulfur hexafluoride technique can reliably predict whether air leakage from return airways will contaminate escapeways. (GRA)