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Title: Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy

Abstract

What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1351586
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5D00-67437
Journal ID: ISSN 1540-7977
DOE Contract Number:  
AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: IEEE Power & Energy Magazine; Journal Volume: 15; Journal Issue: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
24 POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY, AND ECONOMY; variable renewable energy; VRE; integration; grid; inverter

Citation Formats

Kroposki, Benjamin, Johnson, Brian, Zhang, Yingchen, Gevorgian, Vahan, Denholm, Paul, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, and Hannegan, Bryan. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1109/MPE.2016.2637122.
Kroposki, Benjamin, Johnson, Brian, Zhang, Yingchen, Gevorgian, Vahan, Denholm, Paul, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, & Hannegan, Bryan. Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy. United States. doi:10.1109/MPE.2016.2637122.
Kroposki, Benjamin, Johnson, Brian, Zhang, Yingchen, Gevorgian, Vahan, Denholm, Paul, Hodge, Bri-Mathias, and Hannegan, Bryan. Wed . "Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy". United States. doi:10.1109/MPE.2016.2637122.
@article{osti_1351586,
title = {Achieving a 100% Renewable Grid: Operating Electric Power Systems with Extremely High Levels of Variable Renewable Energy},
author = {Kroposki, Benjamin and Johnson, Brian and Zhang, Yingchen and Gevorgian, Vahan and Denholm, Paul and Hodge, Bri-Mathias and Hannegan, Bryan},
abstractNote = {What does it mean to achieve a 100% renewable grid? Several countries already meet or come close to achieving this goal. Iceland, for example, supplies 100% of its electricity needs with either geothermal or hydropower. Other countries that have electric grids with high fractions of renewables based on hydropower include Norway (97%), Costa Rica (93%), Brazil (76%), and Canada (62%). Hydropower plants have been used for decades to create a relatively inexpensive, renewable form of energy, but these systems are limited by natural rainfall and geographic topology. Around the world, most good sites for large hydropower resources have already been developed. So how do other areas achieve 100% renewable grids? Variable renewable energy (VRE), such as wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, will be a major contributor, and with the reduction in costs for these technologies during the last five years, large-scale deployments are happening around the world.},
doi = {10.1109/MPE.2016.2637122},
journal = {IEEE Power & Energy Magazine},
number = 2,
volume = 15,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}