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Title: Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory

Abstract

Here, AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m 2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98% efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (~2%), show a promising performance for this new system.

Authors:
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Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), High Energy Physics (HEP) (SC-25)
Contributing Org.:
Pierre Auger
OSTI Identifier:
1350508
Report Number(s):
FERMILAB-PUB-16-656-AD-CD-TD; arXiv:1703.06193
Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221; 1516105; TRN: US1700651
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11359
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Instrumentation
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 12; Journal Issue: 03; Journal ID: ISSN 1748-0221
Publisher:
Institute of Physics (IOP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS; 46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; pattern recognition; cluster finding; calibration and fitting methods; Performance of High Energy Physics Detectors; front-end electronics for detector readout; photon detectors for UV; visible and IR photons (solid-state) (PIN diodes, APDs, Si-PMTs, G-APDs, CCDs, EBCCDs, EMCCDs etc

Citation Formats

Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Samarai, I. Al, Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allison, P., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D'Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., Mauro, G. De, Neto, J. R. T. de Mello, Mitri, I. De, de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., Peral, L. del, Deligny, O., Giulio, C. Di, Matteo, A. Di, Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D'Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Nellen, L., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk, Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollant, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reinert, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues, Fernandez, G. Rodriguez, Rojo, J. Rodriguez, Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Greus, F. Salesa, Salina, G., Gomez, J. D. Sanabria, Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Suarez, F., Durán, M. Suarez, Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Elipe, G. Torralba, Machado, D. Torres, Torri, M., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., Aar, G. van, Bodegom, P. van, Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yelos, D., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Samarai, I. Al, Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allison, P., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D'Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., Mauro, G. De, Neto, J. R. T. de Mello, Mitri, I. De, de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., Peral, L. del, Deligny, O., Giulio, C. Di, Matteo, A. Di, Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D'Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Nellen, L., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk, Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollant, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reinert, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues, Fernandez, G. Rodriguez, Rojo, J. Rodriguez, Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Greus, F. Salesa, Salina, G., Gomez, J. D. Sanabria, Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Suarez, F., Durán, M. Suarez, Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Elipe, G. Torralba, Machado, D. Torres, Torri, M., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., Aar, G. van, Bodegom, P. van, Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yelos, D., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., & Zuccarello, F. Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory. United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002.
Aab, A., Abreu, P., Aglietta, M., Ahn, E. J., Samarai, I. Al, Albuquerque, I. F. M., Allekotte, I., Allison, P., Almela, A., Castillo, J. Alvarez, Alvarez-Muñiz, J., Ambrosio, M., Anastasi, G. A., Anchordoqui, L., Andrada, B., Andringa, S., Aramo, C., Arqueros, F., Arsene, N., Asorey, H., Assis, P., Aublin, J., Avila, G., Badescu, A. M., Balaceanu, A., Baus, C., Beatty, J. J., Becker, K. H., Bellido, J. A., Berat, C., Bertaina, M. E., Bertou, X., Biermann, P. L., Billoir, P., Biteau, J., Blaess, S. G., Blanco, A., Blazek, J., Bleve, C., Boháčová, M., Boncioli, D., Bonifazi, C., Borodai, N., Botti, A. M., Brack, J., Brancus, I., Bretz, T., Bridgeman, A., Briechle, F. L., Buchholz, P., Bueno, A., Buitink, S., Buscemi, M., Caballero-Mora, K. S., Caccianiga, B., Caccianiga, L., Cancio, A., Canfora, F., Caramete, L., Caruso, R., Castellina, A., Cataldi, G., Cazon, L., Cester, R., Chavez, A. G., Chiavassa, A., Chinellato, J. A., Chudoba, J., Clay, R. W., Colalillo, R., Coleman, A., Collica, L., Coluccia, M. R., Conceição, R., Contreras, F., Cooper, M. J., Coutu, S., Covault, C. E., Cronin, J., Dallier, R., D'Amico, S., Daniel, B., Dasso, S., Daumiller, K., Dawson, B. R., de Almeida, R. M., de Jong, S. J., Mauro, G. De, Neto, J. R. T. de Mello, Mitri, I. De, de Oliveira, J., de Souza, V., Debatin, J., Peral, L. del, Deligny, O., Giulio, C. Di, Matteo, A. Di, Castro, M. L. Díaz, Diogo, F., Dobrigkeit, C., D'Olivo, J. C., Dorofeev, A., Anjos, R. C. dos, Dova, M. T., Dundovic, A., Ebr, J., Engel, R., Erdmann, M., Erfani, M., Escobar, C. O., Espadanal, J., Etchegoyen, A., Falcke, H., Fang, K., Farrar, G., Fauth, A. C., Fazzini, N., Fick, B., Figueira, J. M., Filevich, A., Filipčič, A., Fratu, O., Freire, M. M., Fujii, T., Fuster, A., García, B., Garcia-Pinto, D., Gaté, F., Gemmeke, H., Gherghel-Lascu, A., Ghia, P. L., Giaccari, U., Giammarchi, M., Giller, M., Głas, D., Glaser, C., Glass, H., Golup, G., Berisso, M. Gómez, Vitale, P. F. Gómez, González, N., Gookin, B., Gordon, J., Gorgi, A., Gorham, P., Gouffon, P., Grillo, A. F., Grubb, T. D., Guarino, F., Guedes, G. P., Hampel, M. R., Hansen, P., Harari, D., Harrison, T. A., Harton, J. L., Hasankiadeh, Q., Haungs, A., Hebbeker, T., Heck, D., Heimann, P., Herve, A. E., Hill, G. C., Hojvat, C., Holt, E., Homola, P., Hörandel, J. R., Horvath, P., Hrabovský, M., Huege, T., Hulsman, J., Insolia, A., Isar, P. G., Jandt, I., Jansen, S., Johnsen, J. A., Josebachuili, M., Kääpä, A., Kambeitz, O., Kampert, K. H., Kasper, P., Katkov, I., Keilhauer, B., Kemp, E., Kieckhafer, R. M., Klages, H. O., Kleifges, M., Kleinfeller, J., Krause, R., Krohm, N., Kuempel, D., Mezek, G. Kukec, Kunka, N., Awad, A. Kuotb, LaHurd, D., Latronico, L., Lauscher, M., Lebrun, P., Legumina, R., de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui, Letessier-Selvon, A., Lhenry-Yvon, I., Link, K., Lopes, L., López, R., Casado, A. López, Luce, Q., Lucero, A., Malacari, M., Mallamaci, M., Mandat, D., Mantsch, P., Mariazzi, A. G., Mariş, I. C., Marsella, G., Martello, D., Martinez, H., Bravo, O. Martínez, Meza, J. J. Masías, Mathes, H. J., Mathys, S., Matthews, J., Matthews, J. A. J., Matthiae, G., Mayotte, E., Mazur, P. O., Medina, C., Medina-Tanco, G., Melo, D., Menshikov, A., Messina, S., Micheletti, M. I., Middendorf, L., Minaya, I. A., Miramonti, L., Mitrica, B., Mockler, D., Molina-Bueno, L., Mollerach, S., Montanet, F., Morello, C., Mostafá, M., Müller, G., Muller, M. A., Müller, S., Naranjo, I., Navas, S., Nellen, L., Neuser, J., Nguyen, P. H., Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M., Niechciol, M., Niemietz, L., Niggemann, T., Nitz, D., Nosek, D., Novotny, V., Nožka, H., Núñez, L. A., Ochilo, L., Oikonomou, F., Olinto, A., Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk, Palatka, M., Pallotta, J., Papenbreer, P., Parente, G., Parra, A., Paul, T., Pech, M., Pedreira, F., Pȩkala, J., Pelayo, R., Peña-Rodriguez, J., Pereira, L. A. S., Perrone, L., Peters, C., Petrera, S., Phuntsok, J., Piegaia, R., Pierog, T., Pieroni, P., Pimenta, M., Pirronello, V., Platino, M., Plum, M., Porowski, C., Prado, R. R., Privitera, P., Prouza, M., Quel, E. J., Querchfeld, S., Quinn, S., Ramos-Pollant, R., Rautenberg, J., Ravignani, D., Reinert, D., Revenu, B., Ridky, J., Risse, M., Ristori, P., Rizi, V., de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues, Fernandez, G. Rodriguez, Rojo, J. Rodriguez, Rodríguez-Frías, M. D., Rogozin, D., Rosado, J., Roth, M., Roulet, E., Rovero, A. C., Saffi, S. J., Saftoiu, A., Salazar, H., Saleh, A., Greus, F. Salesa, Salina, G., Gomez, J. D. Sanabria, Sánchez, F., Sanchez-Lucas, P., Santos, E. M., Santos, E., Sarazin, F., Sarkar, B., Sarmento, R., Sarmiento-Cano, C., Sato, R., Scarso, C., Schauer, M., Scherini, V., Schieler, H., Schmidt, D., Scholten, O., Schovánek, P., Schröder, F. G., Schulz, A., Schulz, J., Schumacher, J., Sciutto, S. J., Segreto, A., Settimo, M., Shadkam, A., Shellard, R. C., Sigl, G., Silli, G., Sima, O., Śmiałkowski, A., Šmída, R., Snow, G. R., Sommers, P., Sonntag, S., Sorokin, J., Squartini, R., Stanca, D., Stanič, S., Stasielak, J., Strafella, F., Suarez, F., Durán, M. Suarez, Sudholz, T., Suomijärvi, T., Supanitsky, A. D., Sutherland, M. S., Swain, J., Szadkowski, Z., Taborda, O. A., Tapia, A., Tepe, A., Theodoro, V. M., Timmermans, C., Peixoto, C. J. Todero, Tomankova, L., Tomé, B., Tonachini, A., Elipe, G. Torralba, Machado, D. Torres, Torri, M., Travnicek, P., Trini, M., Ulrich, R., Unger, M., Urban, M., Valbuena-Delgado, A., Galicia, J. F. Valdés, Valiño, I., Valore, L., Aar, G. van, Bodegom, P. van, Berg, A. M. van den, Vliet, A. van, Varela, E., Cárdenas, B. Vargas, Varner, G., Vázquez, J. R., Vázquez, R. A., Veberič, D., Verzi, V., Vicha, J., Villaseñor, L., Vorobiov, S., Wahlberg, H., Wainberg, O., Walz, D., Watson, A. A., Weber, M., Weindl, A., Wiencke, L., Wilczyński, H., Winchen, T., Wittkowski, D., Wundheiler, B., Wykes, S., Yang, L., Yelos, D., Yushkov, A., Zas, E., Zavrtanik, D., Zavrtanik, M., Zepeda, A., Zimmermann, B., Ziolkowski, M., Zong, Z., and Zuccarello, F. Fri . "Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory". United States. doi:10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1350508.
@article{osti_1350508,
title = {Muon counting using silicon photomultipliers in the AMIGA detector of the Pierre Auger observatory},
author = {Aab, A. and Abreu, P. and Aglietta, M. and Ahn, E. J. and Samarai, I. Al and Albuquerque, I. F. M. and Allekotte, I. and Allison, P. and Almela, A. and Castillo, J. Alvarez and Alvarez-Muñiz, J. and Ambrosio, M. and Anastasi, G. A. and Anchordoqui, L. and Andrada, B. and Andringa, S. and Aramo, C. and Arqueros, F. and Arsene, N. and Asorey, H. and Assis, P. and Aublin, J. and Avila, G. and Badescu, A. M. and Balaceanu, A. and Baus, C. and Beatty, J. J. and Becker, K. H. and Bellido, J. A. and Berat, C. and Bertaina, M. E. and Bertou, X. and Biermann, P. L. and Billoir, P. and Biteau, J. and Blaess, S. G. and Blanco, A. and Blazek, J. and Bleve, C. and Boháčová, M. and Boncioli, D. and Bonifazi, C. and Borodai, N. and Botti, A. M. and Brack, J. and Brancus, I. and Bretz, T. and Bridgeman, A. and Briechle, F. L. and Buchholz, P. and Bueno, A. and Buitink, S. and Buscemi, M. and Caballero-Mora, K. S. and Caccianiga, B. and Caccianiga, L. and Cancio, A. and Canfora, F. and Caramete, L. and Caruso, R. and Castellina, A. and Cataldi, G. and Cazon, L. and Cester, R. and Chavez, A. G. and Chiavassa, A. and Chinellato, J. A. and Chudoba, J. and Clay, R. W. and Colalillo, R. and Coleman, A. and Collica, L. and Coluccia, M. R. and Conceição, R. and Contreras, F. and Cooper, M. J. and Coutu, S. and Covault, C. E. and Cronin, J. and Dallier, R. and D'Amico, S. and Daniel, B. and Dasso, S. and Daumiller, K. and Dawson, B. R. and de Almeida, R. M. and de Jong, S. J. and Mauro, G. De and Neto, J. R. T. de Mello and Mitri, I. De and de Oliveira, J. and de Souza, V. and Debatin, J. and Peral, L. del and Deligny, O. and Giulio, C. Di and Matteo, A. Di and Castro, M. L. Díaz and Diogo, F. and Dobrigkeit, C. and D'Olivo, J. C. and Dorofeev, A. and Anjos, R. C. dos and Dova, M. T. and Dundovic, A. and Ebr, J. and Engel, R. and Erdmann, M. and Erfani, M. and Escobar, C. O. and Espadanal, J. and Etchegoyen, A. and Falcke, H. and Fang, K. and Farrar, G. and Fauth, A. C. and Fazzini, N. and Fick, B. and Figueira, J. M. and Filevich, A. and Filipčič, A. and Fratu, O. and Freire, M. M. and Fujii, T. and Fuster, A. and García, B. and Garcia-Pinto, D. and Gaté, F. and Gemmeke, H. and Gherghel-Lascu, A. and Ghia, P. L. and Giaccari, U. and Giammarchi, M. and Giller, M. and Głas, D. and Glaser, C. and Glass, H. and Golup, G. and Berisso, M. Gómez and Vitale, P. F. Gómez and González, N. and Gookin, B. and Gordon, J. and Gorgi, A. and Gorham, P. and Gouffon, P. and Grillo, A. F. and Grubb, T. D. and Guarino, F. and Guedes, G. P. and Hampel, M. R. and Hansen, P. and Harari, D. and Harrison, T. A. and Harton, J. L. and Hasankiadeh, Q. and Haungs, A. and Hebbeker, T. and Heck, D. and Heimann, P. and Herve, A. E. and Hill, G. C. and Hojvat, C. and Holt, E. and Homola, P. and Hörandel, J. R. and Horvath, P. and Hrabovský, M. and Huege, T. and Hulsman, J. and Insolia, A. and Isar, P. G. and Jandt, I. and Jansen, S. and Johnsen, J. A. and Josebachuili, M. and Kääpä, A. and Kambeitz, O. and Kampert, K. H. and Kasper, P. and Katkov, I. and Keilhauer, B. and Kemp, E. and Kieckhafer, R. M. and Klages, H. O. and Kleifges, M. and Kleinfeller, J. and Krause, R. and Krohm, N. and Kuempel, D. and Mezek, G. Kukec and Kunka, N. and Awad, A. Kuotb and LaHurd, D. and Latronico, L. and Lauscher, M. and Lebrun, P. and Legumina, R. and de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui and Letessier-Selvon, A. and Lhenry-Yvon, I. and Link, K. and Lopes, L. and López, R. and Casado, A. López and Luce, Q. and Lucero, A. and Malacari, M. and Mallamaci, M. and Mandat, D. and Mantsch, P. and Mariazzi, A. G. and Mariş, I. C. and Marsella, G. and Martello, D. and Martinez, H. and Bravo, O. Martínez and Meza, J. J. Masías and Mathes, H. J. and Mathys, S. and Matthews, J. and Matthews, J. A. J. and Matthiae, G. and Mayotte, E. and Mazur, P. O. and Medina, C. and Medina-Tanco, G. and Melo, D. and Menshikov, A. and Messina, S. and Micheletti, M. I. and Middendorf, L. and Minaya, I. A. and Miramonti, L. and Mitrica, B. and Mockler, D. and Molina-Bueno, L. and Mollerach, S. and Montanet, F. and Morello, C. and Mostafá, M. and Müller, G. and Muller, M. A. and Müller, S. and Naranjo, I. and Navas, S. and Nellen, L. and Neuser, J. and Nguyen, P. H. and Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M. and Niechciol, M. and Niemietz, L. and Niggemann, T. and Nitz, D. and Nosek, D. and Novotny, V. and Nožka, H. and Núñez, L. A. and Ochilo, L. and Oikonomou, F. and Olinto, A. and Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk and Palatka, M. and Pallotta, J. and Papenbreer, P. and Parente, G. and Parra, A. and Paul, T. and Pech, M. and Pedreira, F. and Pȩkala, J. and Pelayo, R. and Peña-Rodriguez, J. and Pereira, L. A. S. and Perrone, L. and Peters, C. and Petrera, S. and Phuntsok, J. and Piegaia, R. and Pierog, T. and Pieroni, P. and Pimenta, M. and Pirronello, V. and Platino, M. and Plum, M. and Porowski, C. and Prado, R. R. and Privitera, P. and Prouza, M. and Quel, E. J. and Querchfeld, S. and Quinn, S. and Ramos-Pollant, R. and Rautenberg, J. and Ravignani, D. and Reinert, D. and Revenu, B. and Ridky, J. and Risse, M. and Ristori, P. and Rizi, V. and de Carvalho, W. Rodrigues and Fernandez, G. Rodriguez and Rojo, J. Rodriguez and Rodríguez-Frías, M. D. and Rogozin, D. and Rosado, J. and Roth, M. and Roulet, E. and Rovero, A. C. and Saffi, S. J. and Saftoiu, A. and Salazar, H. and Saleh, A. and Greus, F. Salesa and Salina, G. and Gomez, J. D. Sanabria and Sánchez, F. and Sanchez-Lucas, P. and Santos, E. M. and Santos, E. and Sarazin, F. and Sarkar, B. and Sarmento, R. and Sarmiento-Cano, C. and Sato, R. and Scarso, C. and Schauer, M. and Scherini, V. and Schieler, H. and Schmidt, D. and Scholten, O. and Schovánek, P. and Schröder, F. G. and Schulz, A. and Schulz, J. and Schumacher, J. and Sciutto, S. J. and Segreto, A. and Settimo, M. and Shadkam, A. and Shellard, R. C. and Sigl, G. and Silli, G. and Sima, O. and Śmiałkowski, A. and Šmída, R. and Snow, G. R. and Sommers, P. and Sonntag, S. and Sorokin, J. and Squartini, R. and Stanca, D. and Stanič, S. and Stasielak, J. and Strafella, F. and Suarez, F. and Durán, M. Suarez and Sudholz, T. and Suomijärvi, T. and Supanitsky, A. D. and Sutherland, M. S. and Swain, J. and Szadkowski, Z. and Taborda, O. A. and Tapia, A. and Tepe, A. and Theodoro, V. M. and Timmermans, C. and Peixoto, C. J. Todero and Tomankova, L. and Tomé, B. and Tonachini, A. and Elipe, G. Torralba and Machado, D. Torres and Torri, M. and Travnicek, P. and Trini, M. and Ulrich, R. and Unger, M. and Urban, M. and Valbuena-Delgado, A. and Galicia, J. F. Valdés and Valiño, I. and Valore, L. and Aar, G. van and Bodegom, P. van and Berg, A. M. van den and Vliet, A. van and Varela, E. and Cárdenas, B. Vargas and Varner, G. and Vázquez, J. R. and Vázquez, R. A. and Veberič, D. and Verzi, V. and Vicha, J. and Villaseñor, L. and Vorobiov, S. and Wahlberg, H. and Wainberg, O. and Walz, D. and Watson, A. A. and Weber, M. and Weindl, A. and Wiencke, L. and Wilczyński, H. and Winchen, T. and Wittkowski, D. and Wundheiler, B. and Wykes, S. and Yang, L. and Yelos, D. and Yushkov, A. and Zas, E. and Zavrtanik, D. and Zavrtanik, M. and Zepeda, A. and Zimmermann, B. and Ziolkowski, M. and Zong, Z. and Zuccarello, F.},
abstractNote = {Here, AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory designed to extend its energy range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the cosmic ray primary particle showers. The array will be formed by an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors associated with buried scintillation counters employed for muon counting. Each counter is composed of three scintillation modules, with a 10 m2 detection area per module. In this paper, a new generation of detectors, replacing the current multi-pixel photomultiplier tube (PMT) with silicon photo sensors (aka. SiPMs), is proposed. The selection of the new device and its front-end electronics is explained. A method to calibrate the counting system that ensures the performance of the detector is detailed. This method has the advantage of being able to be carried out in a remote place such as the one where the detectors are deployed. High efficiency results, i.e. 98% efficiency for the highest tested overvoltage, combined with a low probability of accidental counting (~2%), show a promising performance for this new system.},
doi = {10.1088/1748-0221/12/03/P03002},
journal = {Journal of Instrumentation},
number = 03,
volume = 12,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Mar 03 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

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  • AMIGA (Auger Muons and Infill for the Ground Array) is an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory to extend its range of detection and to directly measure the muon content of the particle showers. It consists of an infill of surface water-Cherenkov detectors accompanied by buried scintillator detectors used for muon counting. The main objectives of the AMIGA engineering array, referred to as the Unitary Cell, are to identify and resolve all engineering issues as well as to understand the muon-number counting uncertainties related to the design of the detector. The mechanical design, fabrication and deployment processes of the muonmore » counters of the Unitary Cell are described in this document. These muon counters modules comprise sealed PVC casings containing plastic scintillation bars, wavelength-shifter optical fibers, 64 pixel photomultiplier tubes, and acquisition electronics. The modules are buried approximately 2.25 m below ground level in order to minimize contamination from electromagnetic shower particles. The mechanical setup, which allows access to the electronics for maintenance, is also described in addition to tests of the modules' response and integrity. As a result, the completed Unitary Cell has measured a number of air showers of which a first analysis of a sample event is included here.« less
  • In this paper we study the possibility to discriminate the mass of the primary cosmic ray by observing the muon arrival times in ground detectors. We analyzed extensive air showers (EAS) induced by proton and iron nuclei with the same energy 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} eV simulated with CORSIKA, and analyzed the muon arrival times at ground measured by the infill array detectors of the Pierre Auger Observatory (PAO). From the arrival times of the core and of the muons the atmospheric depth of muon generation locus is evaluated. The results suggest a potential mass discrimination on the basis ofmore » muon arrival times and of the reconstructed atmospheric depth of muon production. An analysis of a larger set of CORSIKA simulations carried out for primary energies above 10{sup 18} eV is in progress.« less
  • To accurately reconstruct a shower axis from the Fluorescence Detector data it is essential to establish with high precision the absolute pointing of the telescopes. To d that they calculate the absolute pointing of a telescope using sky background data acquired during regular data taking periods. The method is based on the knowledge of bright star's coordinates that provide a reliable and stable coordinate system. it can be used to check the absolute telescope's pointing and its long-term stability during the whole life of the project, estimated in 20 years. They have analyzed background data taken from January to Octobermore » 2004 to determine the absolute pointing of the 12 telescopes installed both in Los Leones and Coihueco. The method is based on the determination of the mean-time of the variance signal left by a star traversing a PMT's photocathode which is compared with the mean-time obtained by simulating the track of that star on the same pixel.« less
  • A search for ultra-high energy photons with energies above 1 EeV is performed using nine years of data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in hybrid operation mode. An unprecedented separation power between photon and hadron primaries is achieved by combining measurements of the longitudinal air-shower development with the particle content at ground measured by the fluorescence and surface detectors, respectively. Only three photon candidates at energies 1 - 2 EeV are found, which is compatible with the expected hadron-induced background. Upper limits on the integral flux of ultra-high energy photons of 0.027, 0.009, 0.008, 0.008 and 0.007 kmmore » $$^{-2}$$ sr$$^{-1}$$ yr$$^{-1}$$ are derived at 95% C.L. for energy thresholds of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV. These limits bound the fractions of photons in the all-particle integral flux below 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.33%, 0.85% and 2.7%. For the first time the photon fraction at EeV energies is constrained at the sub-percent level. The improved limits are below the flux of diffuse photons predicted by some astrophysical scenarios for cosmogenic photon production. Here, the new results rule-out the early top-down models $-$ in which ultra-high energy cosmic rays are produced by, e.g., the decay of super-massive particles $-$ and challenge the most recent super-heavy dark matter models.« less
  • A search for ultra-high energy photons with energies above 1 EeV is performed using nine years of data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory in hybrid operation mode. An unprecedented separation power between photon and hadron primaries is achieved by combining measurements of the longitudinal air-shower development with the particle content at ground measured by the fluorescence and surface detectors, respectively. Only three photon candidates at energies 1–2 EeV are found, which is compatible with the expected hadron-induced background. Upper limits on the integral flux of ultra-high energy photons of 0.027, 0.009, 0.008, 0.008 and 0.007 km{sup −2} sr{sup −1}more » yr{sup −1} are derived at 95% C.L. for energy thresholds of 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 EeV. These limits bound the fractions of photons in the all-particle integral flux below 0.1%, 0.15%, 0.33%, 0.85% and 2.7%. For the first time the photon fraction at EeV energies is constrained at the sub-percent level. The improved limits are below the flux of diffuse photons predicted by some astrophysical scenarios for cosmogenic photon production. The new results rule-out the early top-down models − in which ultra-high energy cosmic rays are produced by, e.g., the decay of super-massive particles − and challenge the most recent super-heavy dark matter models.« less