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Title: Bright and durable field-emission source derived from frozen refractory-metal Taylor cones

Abstract

A novel method for creating conical field-emission structures possessing unusual and desirable physical characteristics is described. This process is accomplished by solidification of electrostatically formed high-temperature Taylor cones created on the ends of laser melted refractory-metal wires. Extremely rapid freezing ensures that the resultant solid structures preserve the shape and surface smoothness of the flawless liquid Taylor-cones to a very high degree. The method also enables in situ and rapid restoration of the frozen cones to their initial pristine state after undergoing physical degradation during use. This permits maximum current to be delivered without excessive concern for any associated reduction in field-emitter lifetime resulting from operation near or even above the damage threshold. In addition to the production of field emitters using polycrystalline wires as a substrate, the feasibility of producing monocrystalline frozen Taylor-cones having reproducible crystal orientation by growth on single-crystal wires was demonstrated. Finally, the development of the basic field-emission technology, progress to incorporate it into a pulsed electron gun employing laser-assisted field emission for ultrafast experiments, and some additional advances and opportunities are discussed.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Hirsch Scientific, Pacifica, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Hirsch Scientific, Pacifica, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Basic Energy Sciences (BES) (SC-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1350259
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1349400
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0011345
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 2; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-2746
Publisher:
American Vacuum Society/AIP
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; field emission; Taylor cones; ultrafast electron microscopy; refractory metals; LMIS

Citation Formats

Hirsch, Gregory. Bright and durable field-emission source derived from frozen refractory-metal Taylor cones. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4976536.
Hirsch, Gregory. Bright and durable field-emission source derived from frozen refractory-metal Taylor cones. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4976536.
Hirsch, Gregory. Wed . "Bright and durable field-emission source derived from frozen refractory-metal Taylor cones". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4976536. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1350259.
@article{osti_1350259,
title = {Bright and durable field-emission source derived from frozen refractory-metal Taylor cones},
author = {Hirsch, Gregory},
abstractNote = {A novel method for creating conical field-emission structures possessing unusual and desirable physical characteristics is described. This process is accomplished by solidification of electrostatically formed high-temperature Taylor cones created on the ends of laser melted refractory-metal wires. Extremely rapid freezing ensures that the resultant solid structures preserve the shape and surface smoothness of the flawless liquid Taylor-cones to a very high degree. The method also enables in situ and rapid restoration of the frozen cones to their initial pristine state after undergoing physical degradation during use. This permits maximum current to be delivered without excessive concern for any associated reduction in field-emitter lifetime resulting from operation near or even above the damage threshold. In addition to the production of field emitters using polycrystalline wires as a substrate, the feasibility of producing monocrystalline frozen Taylor-cones having reproducible crystal orientation by growth on single-crystal wires was demonstrated. Finally, the development of the basic field-emission technology, progress to incorporate it into a pulsed electron gun employing laser-assisted field emission for ultrafast experiments, and some additional advances and opportunities are discussed.},
doi = {10.1116/1.4976536},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics},
number = 2,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 22 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 22 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
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  • A method of producing field emitters having improved brightness and durability relying on the creation of a liquid Taylor cone from electrically conductive materials having high melting points. The method calls for melting the end of a wire substrate with a focused laser beam, while imposing a high positive potential on the material. The resulting molten Taylor cone is subsequently rapidly quenched by cessation of the laser power. Rapid quenching is facilitated in large part by radiative cooling, resulting in structures having characteristics closely matching that of the original liquid Taylor cone. Frozen Taylor cones thus obtained yield desirable tipmore » end forms for field emission sources in electron beam applications. Regeneration of the frozen Taylor cones in-situ is readily accomplished by repeating the initial formation procedures. The high temperature liquid Taylor cones can also be employed as bright ion sources with chemical elements previously considered impractical to implement.« less
  • Optimization techniques are disclosed for producing sharp and stable tips/nanotips relying on liquid Taylor cones created from electrically conductive materials with high melting points. A wire substrate of such a material with a preform end in the shape of a regular or concave cone, is first melted with a focused laser beam. Under the influence of a high positive potential, a Taylor cone in a liquid/molten state is formed at that end. The cone is then quenched upon cessation of the laser power, thus freezing the Taylor cone. The tip of the frozen Taylor cone is reheated by the lasermore » to allow its precise localized melting and shaping. Tips thus obtained yield desirable end-forms suitable as electron field emission sources for a variety of applications. In-situ regeneration of the tip is readily accomplished. These tips can also be employed as regenerable bright ion sources using field ionization/desorption of introduced chemical species.« less
  • The ionic liquid ion sources (ILISs) recently introduced by Lozano and Martinez Sanchez [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 282, 415 (2005)], based on electrochemically etched tungsten tips as emitters for Taylor cones of ionic liquids (ILs), have been tested with ionic liquids [A{sup +}B{sup -}] of increasing molecular weight and viscosity. These ILs have electrical conductivities well below 1 S/m and were previously thought to be unsuitable to operate in the purely ionic regime because their Taylor cones produce mostly charged drops from conventional capillary tube sources. Strikingly, all the ILs tried on ILIS form charged beams composed exclusively of smallmore » ions and cluster ions A{sup +}(AB){sub n} or B{sup -}(AB){sub n}, with abundances generally peaking at n=1. Particularly interesting are the positive and negative ion beams produced from the room temperature molten salts 1-methyl-3-pentylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate (C{sub 5}MI-(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}){sub 3}PF{sub 3}) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(pentafluoroethyl) sulfonylimide (EMI-(C{sub 2}F{sub 5}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}N). We extend to these heavier species the previous conclusions from Lozano and Martinez Sanchez on the narrow energy distributions of the ion beams. In combination with suitable ILs, this source yields nanoamphere currents of positive and negative monoenergetic molecular ions with masses exceeding 2000 amu. Potential applications are in biological secondary ion mass spectrometry, chemically assisted high-resolution ion beam etching, and electrical propulsion. Advantages of the ILISs versus similar liquid metal ion sources include the possibility to form negative as well as positive ion beams and a much wider range of ion compositions and molecular masses.« less
  • We present the result of a search of the Milagro sky map for spatial correlations with sources from a subset of the recent Fermi Bright Source List (BSL). The BSL consists of the 205 most significant sources detected above 100 MeV by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. We select sources based on their categorization in the BSL, taking all confirmed or possible Galactic sources in the field of view of Milagro. Of the 34 Fermi sources selected, 14 are observed by Milagro at a significance of 3 standard deviations or more. We conduct this search with a new analysis whichmore » employs newly optimized gamma-hadron separation and utilizes the full eight-year Milagro data set. Milagro is sensitive to gamma rays with energy from 1 to 100 TeV with a peak sensitivity from 10 to 50 TeV depending on the source spectrum and declination. These results extend the observation of these sources far above the Fermi energy band. With the new analysis and additional data, multi-TeV emission is definitively observed associated with the Fermi pulsar, J2229.0+6114, in the Boomerang pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Furthermore, an extended region of multi-TeV emission is associated with the Fermi pulsar, J0634.0+1745, the Geminga pulsar.« less