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Title: Surface Waves Generated by Projectile Impact on a Glass Surface

 [1];  [2];  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)
  2. US Army Research Lab
  3. Univeristy of Nevada, Las Vegas
  4. University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Nevada Test Site/National Security Technologies, LLC (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Programs (DP) (NA-10)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Resource Relation:
Conference: International Conference on Advanced Ceramic and Composites, January 23, 2017, Daytona Beach, FL
Country of Publication:
United States
impact, ceramic armor, photonic Doppler velocimetry, PDV, surface waves, Raleigh waves

Citation Formats

Pena, Michael, McDonald, Jason, Satapathy, Sikhanda, O'Toole, Brendan, and Trabia, Mohamed. Surface Waves Generated by Projectile Impact on a Glass Surface. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Pena, Michael, McDonald, Jason, Satapathy, Sikhanda, O'Toole, Brendan, & Trabia, Mohamed. Surface Waves Generated by Projectile Impact on a Glass Surface. United States.
Pena, Michael, McDonald, Jason, Satapathy, Sikhanda, O'Toole, Brendan, and Trabia, Mohamed. Mon . "Surface Waves Generated by Projectile Impact on a Glass Surface". United States. doi:.
title = {Surface Waves Generated by Projectile Impact on a Glass Surface},
author = {Pena, Michael and McDonald, Jason and Satapathy, Sikhanda and O'Toole, Brendan and Trabia, Mohamed},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 23 00:00:00 EST 2017}

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  • Computer programs for solving the thermoplastic equations describing wave generation and propagation caused by the interaction of a laser pulse with a metal surface have been developed over the last several years. One approach is to manipulate the thermoelastic equations using transform techniques and then use numerical methods to invert the equations and solve for wave displacements. Another approach is to spatially discretize the geometry of the model using finite elements and integrate the equations of motion through time. The finite element formulation may be fully coupled or as a further approximation the thermal problem can be solved separately frommore » the mechanical problem. The work reported here sought to develop a technique to use a commercial finite element code (ABAQUS [4]) to simulate surface waves generated in laser ultrasonics. A general purpose finite element code provides the advantages of large element and material libraries and the ability to consider complex geometries and boundary conditions. Sanderson's computer code, which solves the coupled thermoplastic problem using numerical transform techniques, was used to validate the finite element model developed. Validation was performed using simple models and boundary conditions. Subsequent finite element simulations were used to examine the effects of simulated stress gradients (in-plane and through-thickness) on waveforms. Temperature dependent properties and the effect of including an elastic-plastic constitutive material model in the mechanical analysis were also briefly examined.« less
  • Two-dimensional axisymmetric calculations were performed with the Eulerian hydrocode MESA2D and the Lagrangian structural analysis code PRONTO2D. The calculated stress distributions were compared shortly after impact and found to be similar in magnitude and profile. For certain geometric configurations, the interaction of the kinetic energy penetrators with the ceramic targets produce high compressive principal stresses as well as, significant tensile principal stresses ahead of the projectile/ceramic interface. The principal tensile stresses fracture the ceramic ahead of the penetrator. The crack trajectories measured from a recovered ceramic target were compared with crack trajectory estimates based upon MESA2D principal stress states withinmore » the tile. The fracture process degrades the ceramic and allows the projectile to penetrate a fractured ceramic media. 12 refs., 3 figs.« less
  • Major failure modes of thick laminated composites were identified upon examination of ballistically impacted composite panels. Materials covered in the study include glass and Kevlar reinforced composites. Impact velocities range from 2,000 to 4,000 feet per second. A simplified spring-mass analytical model based on an equivalent energy dissipating system was developed to solve an idealized ballistic impact/penetration process for generic thick fiber-reinforced composites. The projectile is assumed to have mass and can deform elastoplastically. A punching shear damage process, which represents the major mode of energy absorption during high velocity impact and, in turn, is responsible for the deceleration ofmore » the projectile, has been idealized by a inner spring. The equivalent variable mass of the composite target is included by considering the 2-D shear wave propagations and its effective stiffness represented by a second nonlinear spring stiffness. At some point during the penetration process, delamination and subsequent bending failures may dominate. An approach determining when primary delamination initiates and extension of primary delamination is taken within the scope of this effort. The problem is formulated spatially and solve numerically under the framework of a finite element approach, and temporarily under finite difference. Projectile penetration and target deflection are calculated as a function of time. Based on this proposed model, a preliminary composite armor design concept can be established.« less
  • A mathematical model for calculating the force produced by projectile impact on terrestrial target was developed based on assumptions that (1) the projectile was rigid, and (2) the target material near the nose section was displaced normally to the nose surface by the penetrating projectile. The assumption suggested that the crater or tunnel produced by the penetrating projectile was similar to that produced by a series of dynamic spherical cavity expansions initiated at the nose tip, and the growth rate of cavities was restricted by the nose shape of the projectile and its penetrating velocity vector. The model allowed themore » calculation of pressure against the penetrating projectile by taking the inertia and the resistant pressure of the moving soil into consideration. The effect of projectile obliquity on pressure distribution on the nose section of projectile could also be calculated by relating the angle of attack and the angle of incidence to the rate of local radius change of the expanding cavity. Using this model, the time history of force vector exerted on the projectile as well as the corresponding trajectory of penetration were calculated. For a small angle of incidence, the calculated axial and lateral forces exerted on the nose of projectile showed a reasonable agreement with those measured from reverse ballistic impact tests. It was demonstrated that the magnitude of forces depended upon the impact velocity, the shape of projectile`s nose section, and the relative density between the projectile and the target material. There were no quantitative measurement of forces when the angle of incidence was large i.e., a shallow impact. For this case, the calculated forces were compared and discussed with the results from similitude analysis.« less