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Title: Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613

Abstract

Discovering how aerosol particles, present in the atmosphere in sizes of a few nanometers to hundred micrometers, initiate ice crystal formation represents a great challenge. Atmospheric ice nucleation is important because ice crystals alter the radiative properties of clouds and thus climate, and impact precipitation and thus the hydrological cycle. The difficulty in predicting atmospheric ice formation is attributable at least in part, to the diversity of ice nucleation pathways, the physical and chemical complexity of the ice nucleating particles (INPs), and the relatively small numbers of INPs (compared with all other aerosol particles), sometimes less than one in 100000. These factors in turn makes constraining ice nucleation parameterizations for modeling applications challenging. The majority of airborne particles are known to be organic in nature or contain organic biogenic material. The presence of organic material adds to the complexity of the particles and therefore the predictability of ice nucleation events since the organic species can display different phase states, e.g. liquid or solid, in response to temperature and humidity. The award DE-SC0008613 to PI Prof. Daniel Knopf at Stony Brook University, “Relating the Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols to the Water Uptake and Ice Nucleation Potential of Particles Collectedmore » During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)”, allowed examination of laboratory generated aerosol particles and field-collected particles for their propensity to nucleate ice under typical tropospheric conditions and relate ice nucleation to the physicochemical properties of the particles including their morphology and chemical composition. This in turn allowed for development of ice nucleation parameterizations for implementation in cloud models. The award resulted in 10 peer-reviewed publications and more than 20 seminar and conference presentations. We demonstrated that the rate of immersion freezing, when a particle immersed in an aqueous droplet acts as an ice nucleus (IN), can be predicted by knowledge of the IN particle type present and the droplet’s water activity which is equal to ambient relative humidity. Our water activity based immersion freezing model is successful in predicting freezing data including INPs such as mineral dusts, marine biological material, organic species, and surfactant molecules. Its mathematical simplicity makes it an ideal candidate for implementation in cloud and climate models. Furthermore, we could show that this model can reproduce many past laboratory measurements which were generated using a variety of instruments to study immersion freezing. Lastly, we have demonstrated that this model can also be applied to field collected particles. Currently, this novel physical parameterization of immersion freezing is being implemented in a cloud model. We examined the physicochemical properties and the ice nucleation potential of particles collected during CARES applying a novel experimental method that allows identification of the individual INPs within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Taking advantage of a variety of micro-spectroscopic techniques, we characterized the composition and morphology of IN and non-IN particles present in the airborne population. We developed a new parameterization for quantifying the mixing state of the entire aerosol populations by introducing a mixing state index. We found that the identified INPs belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the CARES field samples and as such are not special or rare particles. In other words, the INPs can be shown not to be unique in contrast to the common paradigm of being rare and exceptional. Either there are differences between particles acting as IN and particles not acting as IN which are beyond our current detection limit or nucleation occurs randomly on the surface of any one of these compositionally equivalent particles. These results suggest that total particle surface area of the different particle types present in the aerosol population is also a crucial factor when predicting ice nucleation in an air mass. We also observed that ambient organic aerosol particles can initiate ice nucleation and corroborated these findings using laboratory generated organic particles. These experiments demonstrated that information of the organic phase state is important for predicting the ice nucleation pathway and the ability of an organic particle to participate in atmospheric ice crystal formation. This award resulted in substantial new insights in the processes governing immersion freezing, the role of organic aerosol particles in ice cloud formation, and the importance of the ambient aerosol population for prediction of ice nucleation in an air parcel. These findings have significant implications for modeling and field measurement strategies of atmospheric ice nucleation.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1349755
Report Number(s):
DOE-SBU-0008613
DOE Contract Number:  
SC0008613
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Knopf, Daniel A. Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1349755.
Knopf, Daniel A. Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613. United States. doi:10.2172/1349755.
Knopf, Daniel A. Wed . "Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613". United States. doi:10.2172/1349755. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349755.
@article{osti_1349755,
title = {Final Technical Report for Award SC0008613},
author = {Knopf, Daniel A.},
abstractNote = {Discovering how aerosol particles, present in the atmosphere in sizes of a few nanometers to hundred micrometers, initiate ice crystal formation represents a great challenge. Atmospheric ice nucleation is important because ice crystals alter the radiative properties of clouds and thus climate, and impact precipitation and thus the hydrological cycle. The difficulty in predicting atmospheric ice formation is attributable at least in part, to the diversity of ice nucleation pathways, the physical and chemical complexity of the ice nucleating particles (INPs), and the relatively small numbers of INPs (compared with all other aerosol particles), sometimes less than one in 100000. These factors in turn makes constraining ice nucleation parameterizations for modeling applications challenging. The majority of airborne particles are known to be organic in nature or contain organic biogenic material. The presence of organic material adds to the complexity of the particles and therefore the predictability of ice nucleation events since the organic species can display different phase states, e.g. liquid or solid, in response to temperature and humidity. The award DE-SC0008613 to PI Prof. Daniel Knopf at Stony Brook University, “Relating the Chemical and Physical Properties of Aerosols to the Water Uptake and Ice Nucleation Potential of Particles Collected During the Carbonaceous Aerosols and Radiative Effects Study (CARES)”, allowed examination of laboratory generated aerosol particles and field-collected particles for their propensity to nucleate ice under typical tropospheric conditions and relate ice nucleation to the physicochemical properties of the particles including their morphology and chemical composition. This in turn allowed for development of ice nucleation parameterizations for implementation in cloud models. The award resulted in 10 peer-reviewed publications and more than 20 seminar and conference presentations. We demonstrated that the rate of immersion freezing, when a particle immersed in an aqueous droplet acts as an ice nucleus (IN), can be predicted by knowledge of the IN particle type present and the droplet’s water activity which is equal to ambient relative humidity. Our water activity based immersion freezing model is successful in predicting freezing data including INPs such as mineral dusts, marine biological material, organic species, and surfactant molecules. Its mathematical simplicity makes it an ideal candidate for implementation in cloud and climate models. Furthermore, we could show that this model can reproduce many past laboratory measurements which were generated using a variety of instruments to study immersion freezing. Lastly, we have demonstrated that this model can also be applied to field collected particles. Currently, this novel physical parameterization of immersion freezing is being implemented in a cloud model. We examined the physicochemical properties and the ice nucleation potential of particles collected during CARES applying a novel experimental method that allows identification of the individual INPs within a large population of particles sampled from an ambient environment. Taking advantage of a variety of micro-spectroscopic techniques, we characterized the composition and morphology of IN and non-IN particles present in the airborne population. We developed a new parameterization for quantifying the mixing state of the entire aerosol populations by introducing a mixing state index. We found that the identified INPs belong to the most common particle-type classes observed in the CARES field samples and as such are not special or rare particles. In other words, the INPs can be shown not to be unique in contrast to the common paradigm of being rare and exceptional. Either there are differences between particles acting as IN and particles not acting as IN which are beyond our current detection limit or nucleation occurs randomly on the surface of any one of these compositionally equivalent particles. These results suggest that total particle surface area of the different particle types present in the aerosol population is also a crucial factor when predicting ice nucleation in an air mass. We also observed that ambient organic aerosol particles can initiate ice nucleation and corroborated these findings using laboratory generated organic particles. These experiments demonstrated that information of the organic phase state is important for predicting the ice nucleation pathway and the ability of an organic particle to participate in atmospheric ice crystal formation. This award resulted in substantial new insights in the processes governing immersion freezing, the role of organic aerosol particles in ice cloud formation, and the importance of the ambient aerosol population for prediction of ice nucleation in an air parcel. These findings have significant implications for modeling and field measurement strategies of atmospheric ice nucleation.},
doi = {10.2172/1349755},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {4}
}