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Title: Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean

Abstract

Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity ( RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. Finally, this study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate howmore » long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.« less

Authors:
ORCiD logo [1]; ORCiD logo [2]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [4];  [3];  [5]; ORCiD logo [6]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [3]; ORCiD logo [7]
  1. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  2. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States); Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
  3. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)
  4. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Univ. of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia)
  5. Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, RTP, NC (United States)
  6. Instituto de Investigacao em Vulcanologia e Avaliacao de Riscos da Univ. dos Acores, Acores (Portugal)
  7. Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Stony Brook Univ., Stony Brook, NY (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23)
OSTI Identifier:
1349629
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1377929
Grant/Contract Number:
SC0016370; SC0008613; SC0006941
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 122; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2169-897X
Publisher:
American Geophysical Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

China, Swarup, Alpert, Peter A., Zhang, Bo, Schum, Simeon, Dzepina, Katja, Wright, Kendra, Owen, R. Chris, Fialho, Paulo, Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Mazzoleni, Claudio, and Knopf, Daniel A.. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1002/2016JD025817.
China, Swarup, Alpert, Peter A., Zhang, Bo, Schum, Simeon, Dzepina, Katja, Wright, Kendra, Owen, R. Chris, Fialho, Paulo, Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Mazzoleni, Claudio, & Knopf, Daniel A.. Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean. United States. doi:10.1002/2016JD025817.
China, Swarup, Alpert, Peter A., Zhang, Bo, Schum, Simeon, Dzepina, Katja, Wright, Kendra, Owen, R. Chris, Fialho, Paulo, Mazzoleni, Lynn R., Mazzoleni, Claudio, and Knopf, Daniel A.. Mon . "Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean". United States. doi:10.1002/2016JD025817. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349629.
@article{osti_1349629,
title = {Ice cloud formation potential by free tropospheric particles from long-range transport over the Northern Atlantic Ocean},
author = {China, Swarup and Alpert, Peter A. and Zhang, Bo and Schum, Simeon and Dzepina, Katja and Wright, Kendra and Owen, R. Chris and Fialho, Paulo and Mazzoleni, Lynn R. and Mazzoleni, Claudio and Knopf, Daniel A.},
abstractNote = {Long-range transported free tropospheric particles can play a significant role on heterogeneous ice nucleation. Using optical and electron microscopy we examine the physicochemical characteristics of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Particles were collected on substrates from the free troposphere at the remote Pico Mountain Observatory in the Azores Islands, after long-range transport and aging over the Atlantic Ocean. We investigate four specific events to study the ice formation potential by the collected particles with different ages and transport patterns. We use single-particle analysis, as well as bulk analysis to characterize particle populations. Both analyses show substantial differences in particle composition between samples from the four events; in addition, single-particle microscopy analysis indicates that most particles are coated by organic material. The identified INPs contained mixtures of dust, aged sea salt and soot, and organic material acquired either at the source or during transport. The temperature and relative humidity (RH) at which ice formed, varied only by 5% between samples, despite differences in particle composition, sources, and transport patterns. We hypothesize that this small variation in the onset RH may be due to the coating material on the particles. Finally, this study underscores and motivates the need to further investigate how long-range transported and atmospherically aged free tropospheric particles impact ice cloud formation.},
doi = {10.1002/2016JD025817},
journal = {Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres},
number = 5,
volume = 122,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Feb 27 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
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  • Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO), a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro) and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire) significantlymore » enhanced CO and O 3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O 3 and nitrogen oxides. The d [O 3]/d [CO] value was used to investigate O 3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest d [O 3]/d [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O 3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O 3 and d [O 3]/d [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at PMO was estimated to be 11 ± 4 days.« less
  • As part of the Atmosphere/Ocean Chemistry Experiment (AE-ROCE), daily aerosol samples were collected at Bermuda and Barbados. In addition, gas-phase [sup 222]Rn concentrations were analyzed hourly from July 1991 to June 1992. Isentropic analyses, isentropic trajectories, and non-isentropic tranjectories were used to understand the long-range transport of these substances. In particular, the sources of selenium (Se) at Bermuda and Barbados, the transport of aluminum (Al) at Barbados, and the effect of atmospheric stability on radionuclides at Bermuda, were investigated. At Bermuda, approximately 55% of the aerosol Se came from anthropogenic sources located in North America, while the remainder appeared tomore » be from a marine biogenic sources. At Barbados, 60-80% of the Se was attributed to marine biogenic sources. At Barbados, the transport of Al from northern Africa to Barbados was modeled using a vertical interpolation of wind fields. Stoke's law of gravitational settling was used to parameterize the vertical motion. The trajectories using Stokes's law more more accurately predicted the source region of the Al compared to low-level isentropic trajectories. The affect of tropospheric stability on the concentrations of [sup 222]Rn, [sup 210]Pb, and [sup 7]Be sampled at Bermuda was investigated. [sup 7]Be has an upper tropospheric source, while [sup 222]Rn and [sup 210]Pb both have a continental source. The stability of the lower troposphere was calculated based on the relative separation of isentropic surfaces over North America. The results showed that this measure of stability was able to resolve the seasonal effect of stability on these radionuclides, but was not a quantitative predictor.« less
  • Atmospheric flow patterns are examined over the South Atlantic Ocean where a maximum of tropospheric ozone has been observed just west of southern Africa. The authors investigate the flow climatology during October and perform a case study for 6 days during October 1989. Analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting are employed, and a high-resolution global spectral model is used to prepare forecasts during the period. Horizontal and vertical motions are examined and used to prepare three-dimensional backward trajectories from the region of greatest ozone. An initially zonally symmetric distribution of ozone is treated as a passive tracermore » and advected by three dimensional flows forecast by the global model. Results from the passive tracer and advected by three-dimensional advection alone can produce a maximum of tropospheric ozone in the observed location. In addition, the trajectories suggest that by-products of biomass burning could be transported to the area of maximum ozone. Low-level flow from commonly observed regions of burning in Africa streams westward to the area of interest. Over Brazil, if the burning by-products are carried into the upper troposphere by convective process, they then could be transported eastward to the ozone feature in approximately 5 days. There is considerable subsidence over the tropical southern Atlantic, such that stratospheric influences also are a factor in producing the ozone maximum. Both planetary-scale and transient synoptic-scale circulation features play major roles in the various transport processes that influence the region. In summary, the observed tropospheric ozone maximum appears to be caused by a complex set of horizontal and vertical advections, transport from regions of biomass burning, and stratospheric influences. 61 refs., 17 figs.« less
  • Volcanic emissions and coal burning are among the major sources of SO2 over the continental environment. In this study, we show episodes of long-range transport of volcanic SO2 from Africa to Northern India using satellite observations. Monthly averaged SO2 from OMI were of the order of 0.6-0.9 DU during November, 2008 over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), which far exceeded background values (<0.3 DU) retrieved from observations across different locations over North India during 2005-2010. The columnar SO2 loadings were much higher on November 6 over most of the IGP and even exceeded 6 DU, a factor of 10 higher thanmore » background levels at some places. These enhanced SO2 levels were, however, not reciprocated in satellite derived NO2 or CO columns, indicating transport from a non-anthropogenic source of SO2. Backward trajectory analysis revealed strong winds in the free troposphere, which originated from the Dalaffilla volcanic eruption over the Afar region of Ethiopia during November 4-6, 2008. Wind streams and stable atmospheric conditions were conducive to the long-range transport of volcanic plume into the IGP. As most of the local aerosols over IGP region are below 3 km, a well separated layer at 4-5 km is observed from CALIPSO, most likely as a result of this transport. Apart from known anthropogenic sources, the additional transport of volcanic SO2 over the IGP region would have implications to air quality and radiation balance over this region.« less