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Title: Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives

Abstract

Previous studies identified ebselen as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, comprising three homologous enzymes required for the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, the Mtb Ag85C enzyme was cocrystallized with azido and adamantyl ebselen derivatives, resulting in two crystallographic structures of 2.01 and 1.30 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures displayed the anticipated covalent modification of the solvent accessible, noncatalytic Cys209 residue forming a selenenylsulfide bond. Continuous difference density for both thiol modifiers allowed for the assessment of interactions that influence ebselen binding and inhibitor orientation that were unobserved in previous Ag85C ebselen structures. The k inact/ K I values for ebselen, adamantyl ebselen, and azido ebselen support the importance of observed constructive chemical interactions with Arg239 for increased in vitro efficacy toward Ag85C. To better understand the in vitro kinetic properties of these ebselen derivatives, the energetics of specific protein–inhibitor interactions and relative reaction free energies were calculated for ebselen and both derivatives using density functional theory. These studies further support the different in vitro properties of ebselen and two select ebselen derivatives from our previously published ebselen library with respect to kinetics andmore » protein–inhibitor interactions. In both structures, the α9 helix was displaced farther from the enzyme active site than the previous Ag85C ebselen structure, resulting in the restructuring of a connecting loop and imparting a conformational change to residues believed to play a role in substrate binding specific to Ag85C. These notable structural changes directly affect protein stability, reducing the overall melting temperature by up to 14.5 °C, resulting in the unfolding of protein at physiological temperatures. Additionally, this structural rearrangement due to covalent allosteric modification creates a sizable solvent network that encompasses the active site and extends to the modified Cys209 residue. In all, this study outlines factors that influence enzyme inhibition by ebselen and its derivatives while further highlighting the effects of the covalent modification of Cys209 by said inhibitors on the structure and stability of Ag85C. Moreover, the results suggest a strategy for developing new classes of Ag85 inhibitors with increased specificity and potency.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1]; ORCiD logo [1];  [3]; ORCiD logo [1]
  1. Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry
  2. Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biology and Soft Matter Division
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Biosciences Division. UT/ORNL Center for Molecular Biophysics
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Toledo, OH (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC); National Inst. of Health (NIH) (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
1349618
Grant/Contract Number:  
AC05-00OR22725; AC02-06CH11357; AI105084
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Infectious Diseases
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 3; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2373-8227
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; CADES; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; antigen 85 complex; allosteric covalent inhibition; ebselen

Citation Formats

Goins, Christopher M., Dajnowicz, Steven, Thanna, Sandeep, Sucheck, Steven J., Parks, Jerry M., and Ronning, Donald R.. Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00003.
Goins, Christopher M., Dajnowicz, Steven, Thanna, Sandeep, Sucheck, Steven J., Parks, Jerry M., & Ronning, Donald R.. Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives. United States. doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00003.
Goins, Christopher M., Dajnowicz, Steven, Thanna, Sandeep, Sucheck, Steven J., Parks, Jerry M., and Ronning, Donald R.. Mon . "Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives". United States. doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00003. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349618.
@article{osti_1349618,
title = {Exploring Covalent Allosteric Inhibition of Antigen 85C from Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Ebselen Derivatives},
author = {Goins, Christopher M. and Dajnowicz, Steven and Thanna, Sandeep and Sucheck, Steven J. and Parks, Jerry M. and Ronning, Donald R.},
abstractNote = {Previous studies identified ebselen as a potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigen 85 (Ag85) complex, comprising three homologous enzymes required for the biosynthesis of the mycobacterial cell wall. In this study, the Mtb Ag85C enzyme was cocrystallized with azido and adamantyl ebselen derivatives, resulting in two crystallographic structures of 2.01 and 1.30 Å resolution, respectively. Both structures displayed the anticipated covalent modification of the solvent accessible, noncatalytic Cys209 residue forming a selenenylsulfide bond. Continuous difference density for both thiol modifiers allowed for the assessment of interactions that influence ebselen binding and inhibitor orientation that were unobserved in previous Ag85C ebselen structures. The kinact/KI values for ebselen, adamantyl ebselen, and azido ebselen support the importance of observed constructive chemical interactions with Arg239 for increased in vitro efficacy toward Ag85C. To better understand the in vitro kinetic properties of these ebselen derivatives, the energetics of specific protein–inhibitor interactions and relative reaction free energies were calculated for ebselen and both derivatives using density functional theory. These studies further support the different in vitro properties of ebselen and two select ebselen derivatives from our previously published ebselen library with respect to kinetics and protein–inhibitor interactions. In both structures, the α9 helix was displaced farther from the enzyme active site than the previous Ag85C ebselen structure, resulting in the restructuring of a connecting loop and imparting a conformational change to residues believed to play a role in substrate binding specific to Ag85C. These notable structural changes directly affect protein stability, reducing the overall melting temperature by up to 14.5 °C, resulting in the unfolding of protein at physiological temperatures. Additionally, this structural rearrangement due to covalent allosteric modification creates a sizable solvent network that encompasses the active site and extends to the modified Cys209 residue. In all, this study outlines factors that influence enzyme inhibition by ebselen and its derivatives while further highlighting the effects of the covalent modification of Cys209 by said inhibitors on the structure and stability of Ag85C. Moreover, the results suggest a strategy for developing new classes of Ag85 inhibitors with increased specificity and potency.},
doi = {10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00003},
journal = {ACS Infectious Diseases},
number = 5,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Mon Mar 13 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

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