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Title: Enhancement of β-phase in PVDF films embedded with ferromagnetic Gd 5Si 4 nanoparticles for piezoelectric energy harvesting

Abstract

Self-polarized Gd5Si4-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite films have been synthesized via a facile phase-inversion technique. For the 5 wt% Gd 5Si 4-PVDF films, the enhancement of the piezoelectric β-phase and crystallinity are confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (phase fraction, FβFβ, of 81% as compared to 49% for pristine PVDF) and differential scanning calorimetry (crystallinity, ΔXcΔXc, of 58% as compared to 46% for pristine PVDF), respectively. The Gd5Si4 magnetic nanoparticles, prepared using high-energy ball milling were characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) to reveal a particle size of ~470 nm with a high magnetization of 11 emu/g. The VSM analysis of free-standing Gd5Si4-PVDF films revealed that while the pristine PVDF membrane shows weak diamagnetic behavior, the Gd5Si4-PVDF films loaded at 2.5 wt% and 5 wt% Gd 5Si 4 show enhanced ferromagnetic behavior with paramagnetic contribution from Gd5Si3 phase. The interfacial interactions between Gd5Si4 and PVDF results in the preferential crystallization of the β-phase as confirmed via the shift in the CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the FTIR. These results confirm the magnetic Gd 5Si 4 nanoparticles embedded in the PVDF membrane lead to an increased β-phase fraction, which paves the way for futuremore » efficient energy harvesting applications using a combination of magnetic and piezoelectric effects.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [4];  [2];  [2];  [1]
  1. Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States)
  2. Univ. of Bolton, (United Kngdom)
  3. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States)
  4. Ames Lab., Ames, IA (United States); Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Ames Laboratory (AMES), Ames, IA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1349324
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1368050; OSTI ID: 1421284
Report Number(s):
IS-J 9345
Journal ID: ISSN 2158-3226; AAIDBI
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-07CH11358
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
AIP Advances
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Journal Issue: 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2158-3226
Publisher:
American Institute of Physics (AIP)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Citation Formats

Harstad, Shane, D’Souza, Noel, Soin, Navneet, El-Gendy, Ahmed A., Gupta, Shalabh, Pecharsky, Vitalij K., Shah, Tahir, Siores, Elias, and Hadimani, Ravi L. Enhancement of β-phase in PVDF films embedded with ferromagnetic Gd5Si4 nanoparticles for piezoelectric energy harvesting. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1063/1.4973596.
Harstad, Shane, D’Souza, Noel, Soin, Navneet, El-Gendy, Ahmed A., Gupta, Shalabh, Pecharsky, Vitalij K., Shah, Tahir, Siores, Elias, & Hadimani, Ravi L. Enhancement of β-phase in PVDF films embedded with ferromagnetic Gd5Si4 nanoparticles for piezoelectric energy harvesting. United States. doi:10.1063/1.4973596.
Harstad, Shane, D’Souza, Noel, Soin, Navneet, El-Gendy, Ahmed A., Gupta, Shalabh, Pecharsky, Vitalij K., Shah, Tahir, Siores, Elias, and Hadimani, Ravi L. Wed . "Enhancement of β-phase in PVDF films embedded with ferromagnetic Gd5Si4 nanoparticles for piezoelectric energy harvesting". United States. doi:10.1063/1.4973596.
@article{osti_1349324,
title = {Enhancement of β-phase in PVDF films embedded with ferromagnetic Gd5Si4 nanoparticles for piezoelectric energy harvesting},
author = {Harstad, Shane and D’Souza, Noel and Soin, Navneet and El-Gendy, Ahmed A. and Gupta, Shalabh and Pecharsky, Vitalij K. and Shah, Tahir and Siores, Elias and Hadimani, Ravi L.},
abstractNote = {Self-polarized Gd5Si4-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite films have been synthesized via a facile phase-inversion technique. For the 5 wt% Gd5Si4-PVDF films, the enhancement of the piezoelectric β-phase and crystallinity are confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (phase fraction, FβFβ, of 81% as compared to 49% for pristine PVDF) and differential scanning calorimetry (crystallinity, ΔXcΔXc, of 58% as compared to 46% for pristine PVDF), respectively. The Gd5Si4 magnetic nanoparticles, prepared using high-energy ball milling were characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) to reveal a particle size of ~470 nm with a high magnetization of 11 emu/g. The VSM analysis of free-standing Gd5Si4-PVDF films revealed that while the pristine PVDF membrane shows weak diamagnetic behavior, the Gd5Si4-PVDF films loaded at 2.5 wt% and 5 wt% Gd5Si4 show enhanced ferromagnetic behavior with paramagnetic contribution from Gd5Si3 phase. The interfacial interactions between Gd5Si4 and PVDF results in the preferential crystallization of the β-phase as confirmed via the shift in the CH2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the FTIR. These results confirm the magnetic Gd5Si4 nanoparticles embedded in the PVDF membrane lead to an increased β-phase fraction, which paves the way for future efficient energy harvesting applications using a combination of magnetic and piezoelectric effects.},
doi = {10.1063/1.4973596},
journal = {AIP Advances},
number = 5,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 04 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Jan 04 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1063/1.4973596

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  • Self-polarized Gd5Si4-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanocomposite films have been synthesized via a facile phase-inversion technique. For the 5 wt% Gd 5Si 4-PVDF films, the enhancement of the piezoelectric β-phase and crystallinity are confirmed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (phase fraction, FβFβ, of 81% as compared to 49% for pristine PVDF) and differential scanning calorimetry (crystallinity, ΔXcΔXc, of 58% as compared to 46% for pristine PVDF), respectively. The Gd5Si4 magnetic nanoparticles, prepared using high-energy ball milling were characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering and Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM) to reveal a particle size of ~470 nm with a high magnetization of 11more » emu/g. The VSM analysis of free-standing Gd5Si4-PVDF films revealed that while the pristine PVDF membrane shows weak diamagnetic behavior, the Gd5Si4-PVDF films loaded at 2.5 wt% and 5 wt% Gd 5Si 4 show enhanced ferromagnetic behavior with paramagnetic contribution from Gd5Si3 phase. The interfacial interactions between Gd5Si4 and PVDF results in the preferential crystallization of the β-phase as confirmed via the shift in the CH 2 asymmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the FTIR. These results confirm the magnetic Gd 5Si 4 nanoparticles embedded in the PVDF membrane lead to an increased β-phase fraction, which paves the way for future efficient energy harvesting applications using a combination of magnetic and piezoelectric effects.« less
  • Cited by 1
  • Gd 5(Si xGe 1-x) 4 compounds undergo first-order phase transitions close to room temperature when x ~ = 0.5, which are accompanied by extreme changes of properties. We report the fabrication of the nanoparticles of one of the parent compounds-Gd 5Si 4-using high-energy ball milling. Crystal structure, microstructure, and magnetic properties have been investigated. Particles agglomerate at long milling times, and the particles that are milled >20 min lose crystallinity and no longer undergo magnetic phase transition close to 340 K, which is present in a bulk material. The samples milled for >20 min exhibit a slightly increased coercivity. Asmore » a result, magnetization at a high temperature of 275K decreases with the increase in the milling time.« less
  • Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}, Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}, and Gd{sub 5.09}Ge{sub 2.03}Si{sub 1.88} compounds were studied by electron spin resonance. The arc-melted samples were initially characterized by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and static magnetization measurements. The electron spin resonance results show a negative paramagnetic g shift for Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} and Gd{sub 5.09}Ge{sub 2.03}Si{sub 1.88}, and a smaller positive one for Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}. The values of the exchange parameter (j) between the localized Gd-4f spins and the conduction electrons are obtained from the g shifts. These values are positive and of the same order of magnitude for Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4} andmore » Gd{sub 5.09}Ge{sub 2.03}Si{sub 1.88}, and negative one order of magnitude smaller for Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}. The electron spin resonance data were interpreted considering the strongly bottlenecked solution of the coupled Bloch-Hasegawa equations.« less
  • A phase of trigonal structure has been reported in previous articles to be piezoelectric with a very high longitudinal d{sub 33} coefficient of several thousand pm/V (J. Solid State Chem. 184 (2011) 2023, 2033). It was observed in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films and assumed to be the result of a reversible monoclinic–trigonal phase transition. However, new investigations are reported because the cell parameters of this phase are actually very close to those of the natrotantite mineral Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 4}O{sub 11}. From analyses by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (XEDS), the chemical composition of this trigonal phase corresponds to (Na{sub x}K{submore » 1−x}){sub 2}Ta{sub 4}O{sub 11} with x≈0.93. The origin of sodium, potassium, iron and oxygen atoms is found to be due to a pollution coming from alumina crucibles used for thermal treatments. Knowing both atomic structures Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and Na{sub 2}Ta{sub 4}O{sub 11} and their structural relationships, observed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the mechanism of the reaction of transformation is re-examined and discussed. This mechanism implies that Ta{sup 5+} vacancies likely exist in monoclinic structures of tantalum oxide and that electrical neutrality could be due to incorporated proton H{sup +} instead of O{sup 2−} vacancies or Ta{sup 5+} interstitials. - Graphical abstract: (a, b) TEM images of interfaces between Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} monoclinic and (Na{sub 0.93}K{sub 0.07}){sub 2}Ta{sub 4}O{sub 11} trigonal phases where it appears that the ratio of periods for the transformation monoclinic-to-trigonal is 3/2 (c, d) corresponding schema of the reaction of transformation, (a, c) viewed along the zone axes [010]{sub o}∥[1{sup ¯}21{sup ¯}]{sub R} and (b, d) along the zone axes [100]{sub o}∥[101{sup ¯}]{sub R}. Highlights: ► The formation of a piezoelectric phase in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin films, reported in previous articles, is re-examined. ► Its composition is actually (Na{sub x},K{sub 1}−x){sub 2}Ta{sub 4}O{sub 11} with x=0.93, instead of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. ► Ta{sup 5+} vacancies, compensated by protons within tantalumoxide, are involved in a new analysis of the transformation.« less