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Title: Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment

Abstract

During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign, which was carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015, multiple-Doppler scanning strategies were carried out with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars. Specifically, step–stare measurements were collected simultaneously with three scanning Doppler lidars, while two scanning Ka-band radars carried out simultaneous range height indicator (RHI) scans. The XPIA experiment provided the unique opportunity to compare directly virtual-tower measurements performed simultaneously with Ka-band radars and Doppler wind lidars. Furthermore, multiple-Doppler measurements were assessed against sonic anemometer data acquired from the meteorological tower (met-tower) present at the BAO site and a lidar wind profiler. As a result, this survey shows that – despite the different technologies, measurement volumes and sampling periods used for the lidar and radar measurements – a very good accuracy is achieved for both remote-sensing techniques for probing horizontal wind speed and wind direction with the virtual-tower scanning technique.

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [2];  [2]; ORCiD logo [3];  [4]; ORCiD logo [5];  [6];  [2];  [2]
  1. The Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States)
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States)
  3. Univ. of Maryland Baltimore County (UMBC), Baltimore, MD (United States)
  4. Columbus State Univ., Columbus, GA (United States)
  5. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)
  6. Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)
OSTI Identifier:
1349153
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 1352733
Report Number(s):
NREL/JA-5000-68385
Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Grant/Contract Number:
AC36-08GO28308; AFA-5-52027-01 under DE-AC36-08GO28308
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Published Article
Journal Name:
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Name: Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online); Journal Volume: 10; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 1867-8548
Publisher:
European Geosciences Union
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
17 WIND ENERGY; scanning wind lidars; Ka-band radars; Doppler lidars; XPIA; eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment

Citation Formats

Debnath, Mithu, Iungo, Giacomo Valerio, Brewer, W. Alan, Choukulkar, Aditya, Delgado, Ruben, Gunter, Scott, Lundquist, Julie K., Schroeder, John L., Wilczak, James M., and Wolfe, Daniel. Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1215-2017.
Debnath, Mithu, Iungo, Giacomo Valerio, Brewer, W. Alan, Choukulkar, Aditya, Delgado, Ruben, Gunter, Scott, Lundquist, Julie K., Schroeder, John L., Wilczak, James M., & Wolfe, Daniel. Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment. United States. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1215-2017.
Debnath, Mithu, Iungo, Giacomo Valerio, Brewer, W. Alan, Choukulkar, Aditya, Delgado, Ruben, Gunter, Scott, Lundquist, Julie K., Schroeder, John L., Wilczak, James M., and Wolfe, Daniel. Wed . "Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment". United States. doi:10.5194/amt-10-1215-2017.
@article{osti_1349153,
title = {Assessment of virtual towers performed with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars during the XPIA experiment},
author = {Debnath, Mithu and Iungo, Giacomo Valerio and Brewer, W. Alan and Choukulkar, Aditya and Delgado, Ruben and Gunter, Scott and Lundquist, Julie K. and Schroeder, John L. and Wilczak, James M. and Wolfe, Daniel},
abstractNote = {During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign, which was carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015, multiple-Doppler scanning strategies were carried out with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars. Specifically, step–stare measurements were collected simultaneously with three scanning Doppler lidars, while two scanning Ka-band radars carried out simultaneous range height indicator (RHI) scans. The XPIA experiment provided the unique opportunity to compare directly virtual-tower measurements performed simultaneously with Ka-band radars and Doppler wind lidars. Furthermore, multiple-Doppler measurements were assessed against sonic anemometer data acquired from the meteorological tower (met-tower) present at the BAO site and a lidar wind profiler. As a result, this survey shows that – despite the different technologies, measurement volumes and sampling periods used for the lidar and radar measurements – a very good accuracy is achieved for both remote-sensing techniques for probing horizontal wind speed and wind direction with the virtual-tower scanning technique.},
doi = {10.5194/amt-10-1215-2017},
journal = {Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (Online)},
number = 3,
volume = 10,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 29 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.5194/amt-10-1215-2017

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 2works
Citation information provided by
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  • During the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign, which was carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) in spring 2015, multiple-Doppler scanning strategies were carried out with scanning wind lidars and Ka-band radars. Specifically, step–stare measurements were collected simultaneously with three scanning Doppler lidars, while two scanning Ka-band radars carried out simultaneous range height indicator (RHI) scans. The XPIA experiment provided the unique opportunity to compare directly virtual-tower measurements performed simultaneously with Ka-band radars and Doppler wind lidars. Furthermore, multiple-Doppler measurements were assessed against sonic anemometer data acquired from the meteorological tower (met-tower) present at the BAOmore » site and a lidar wind profiler. As a result, this survey shows that – despite the different technologies, measurement volumes and sampling periods used for the lidar and radar measurements – a very good accuracy is achieved for both remote-sensing techniques for probing horizontal wind speed and wind direction with the virtual-tower scanning technique.« less
  • Coincident profiling observations from Doppler lidars and radars are used to estimate the turbulence energy dissipation rate (ε) using three different data sources: (i) Doppler radar velocity (DRV), (ii) Doppler lidar velocity (DLV), and (iii) Doppler radar spectrum width (DRW) measurements. Likewise, the agreement between the derived ε estimates is examined at the cloud base height of stratiform warm clouds. Collocated ε estimates based on power spectra analysis of DRV and DLV measurements show good agreement (correlation coefficient of 0.86 and 0.78 for both cases analyzed here) during both drizzling and nondrizzling conditions. This suggests that unified (below and abovemore » cloud base) time-height estimates of ε in cloud-topped boundary layer conditions can be produced. This also suggests that eddy dissipation rate can be estimated throughout the cloud layer without the constraint that clouds need to be nonprecipitating. Eddy dissipation rate estimates based on DRW measurements compare well with the estimates based on Doppler velocity but their performance deteriorates as precipitation size particles are introduced in the radar volume and broaden the DRW values. And, based on this finding, a methodology to estimate the Doppler spectra broadening due to the spread of the drop size distribution is presented. Furthermore, the uncertainties in ε introduced by signal-to-noise conditions, the estimation of the horizontal wind, the selection of the averaging time window, and the presence of precipitation are discussed in detail.« less
  • The motivation for this research is to develop a precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method using cloud radar-only measurements for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) long-term cloud observation analysis, which are crucial and unique for studying cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes. Based on simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign, a new cloud radar-only based precipitation classification and rain rate estimation method has been developed and evaluated. The resulting precipitation classification ismore » equivalent to those collocated SMART-R and S-PolKa observations. Both cloud and precipitation radars detected about 5% precipitation occurrence during this period. The convective (stratiform) precipitation fraction is about 18% (82%). The 2-day collocated disdrometer observations show an increased number concentration of large raindrops in convective rain compared to dominant concentration of small raindrops in stratiform rain. The composite distributions of KAZR reflectivity and Doppler velocity also show two distinct structures for convective and stratiform rain. These indicate that the method produces physically consistent results for two types of rain. The cloud radar-only rainfall estimation is developed based on the gradient of accumulative radar reflectivity below 1 km, near-surface Ze, and collocated surface rainfall (R) measurement. The parameterization is compared with the Z-R exponential relation. The relative difference between estimated and surface measured rainfall rate shows that the two-parameter relation can improve rainfall estimation.« less
  • Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved withmore » good accuracy. Furthermore, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.« less
    Cited by 3
  • Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved withmore » good accuracy. Furthermore, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.« less