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Title: Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO 2 Capture Final Technical Report

Abstract

The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO 2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO 2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO 2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO 2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO 2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO 2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of themore » powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO 2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO 2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post combustion CO 2 capture process using a bituminous coal fired, super-critical steam cycle power plant producing 550 MWe net generation with 90% CO 2 capture using a methylethylamine (MEA) solvent. Using the NETL report as guidance, the designed CO 2 capture system was analyzed on a cost basis to determine relative cost estimates between the benchmark MEA system and the AFA sorbent system.« less

Authors:
 [1]
  1. Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fossil Energy (FE), Office of Clean Energy Systems (FE-22)
OSTI Identifier:
1349123
Report Number(s):
DOE-FE-13172
DOE Contract Number:
FE0013127
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; AFA; aerogel; CO2 capture; pellet; CO2 capacity; bench-scale; sol-gel; attrition; bead

Citation Formats

Begag, Redouane. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.2172/1349123.
Begag, Redouane. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report. United States. doi:10.2172/1349123.
Begag, Redouane. Thu . "Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report". United States. doi:10.2172/1349123. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349123.
@article{osti_1349123,
title = {Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report},
author = {Begag, Redouane},
abstractNote = {The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post combustion CO2 capture process using a bituminous coal fired, super-critical steam cycle power plant producing 550 MWe net generation with 90% CO2 capture using a methylethylamine (MEA) solvent. Using the NETL report as guidance, the designed CO2 capture system was analyzed on a cost basis to determine relative cost estimates between the benchmark MEA system and the AFA sorbent system.},
doi = {10.2172/1349123},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Thu Mar 30 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}

Technical Report:

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  • It is increasingly clear that CO 2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO 2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO 2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO 2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO 2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advancedmore » Solid Sorbent CO 2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO 2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO 2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO 2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO 2 capture. The overall objective of this project was to mitigate the technical and economic risks associated with the scale-up of solid sorbent-based CO 2 capture processes, enabling subsequent larger pilot demonstrations and ultimately commercial deployment. An integrated development approach has been a key focus of this project in which process development, sorbent development, and economic analyses have informed each of the other development processes. Development efforts have focused on improving the performance stability of sorbent candidates, refining process engineering and design, and evaluating the viability of the technology through detailed economic analyses. Sorbent advancements have led to a next generation, commercially-viable CO 2 capture sorbent exhibiting performance stability in various gas environments and a physically strong fluidizable form. The team has reduced sorbent production costs and optimized the production process and scale-up of PEI-impregnated, fluidizable sorbents. Refinement of the process engineering and design, as well as the construction and operation of a bench-scale research unit has demonstrated promising CO 2 capture performance under simulated coal-fired flue gas conditions. Parametric testing has shown how CO 2 capture performance is impacted by changing process variables, such as Adsorber temperature, Regenerator temperature, superficial flue gas velocity, solids circulation rate, CO 2 partial pressure in the Regenerator, and many others. Long-term testing has generated data for the project team to set the process conditions needed to operate a solids-based system for optimal performance, with continuous 90% CO 2 capture, and no operational interruptions. Data collected from all phases of testing has been used to develop a detailed techno-economic assessment of RTI’s technology. These detailed analyses show that RTI’s technology has significant economic advantages over current amine scrubbing and potential to achieve the DOE’s Carbon Capture Program’s goal of >90% CO 2 capture rate at a cost of < $40/T-CO 2 captured by 2025. Through this integrated technology development approach, the project team has advanced RTI’s CO 2 capture technology to TRL-4 (nearly TRL-5, with the missing variable being testing on actual, coal-fired flue gas), according to the DOE/FE definitions for Technology Readiness Levels. At a broader level, this project has advanced the whole of the solid sorbent CO 2 capture field, with advancements in process engineering and design, technical risk mitigation, sorbent scale-up optimization, and an understanding of the commercial viability and applicability of solid sorbent CO 2 capture technologies for the U.S. existing fleet of coal-fired power plants.« less
  • The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO 2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO 2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO 2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO 2 with at least 95% CO 2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO 2 captured. In the first budget period of the project,more » the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO 2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO 2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO 2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major unit operations in the process. The bench scale unit operations were assembled into a continuous system to support steady state system testing. In the third budget period of the project, continuous system testing was conducted, including closed-loop operation of the absorber and desober systems. Slurries of GAP-0/GAP-0 carbamate/water mixtures produced in the absorber were pumped successfully to the desorber unit, and regenerated solvent was returned to the absorber. A techno-economic analysis, EH&S risk assessment, and solvent manufacturability study were completed.« less
  • This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the netmore » power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.« less
  • This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).
  • A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysismore » (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily demonstrated. In addition to the experimental studies, the technical challenges pertinent to fouling of slurry-handling equipment and the design of the crystallizer and stripper were addressed through consultation with vendors and engineering analyses. A process flow diagram of the Hot-CAP was then developed and a TEA was performed to compare the energy use and cost performance of a nominal 550-MWe subcritical pulverized coal (PC)-fired power plant without CO{sub 2} capture (DOE/NETL Case 9) with the benchmark MEA-based post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC; DOE/NETL Case 10) and the Hot-CAP-based PCC. The results revealed that the net power produced in the PC + Hot-CAP is 609 MWe, greater than the PC + MEA (550 MWe). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the PC + Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} transportation and storage, is 120.3 mills/kWh, a 60% increase over the base PC plant without CO{sub 2} capture. The LCOE increase for the Hot-CAP is 29% lower than that for MEA. TEA results demonstrated that the Hot-CAP is energy-efficient and cost-effective compared with the benchmark MEA process.« less