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Title: A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections

Abstract

Imaging technology is generally considered too invasive for arms control inspections due to the concern that it cannot properly secure sensitive features of the inspected item. But, this same sensitive information, which could include direct information on the form and function of the items under inspection, could be used for robust arms control inspections. The single-pixel X-ray imager (SPXI) is introduced as a method to make such inspections, capturing the salient spatial information of an object in a secure manner while never forming an actual image. We built this method on the theory of compressive sensing and the single pixel optical camera. The performance of the system is quantified using simulated inspections of simple objects. Measures of the robustness and security of the method are introduced and used to determine how robust and secure such an inspection would be. Particularly, it is found that an inspection with low noise (<1%) and high undersampling (>256×) exhibits high robustness and security.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Nonproliferation and Verification Research and Development (NA-22); USDOE National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (NA-20)
OSTI Identifier:
1349077
Report Number(s):
PNNL-SA-122169
Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002; PII: S0168900217303650
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-76RL01830; NA-22
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 861; Journal Issue: C; Journal ID: ISSN 0168-9002
Publisher:
Elsevier
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; compressive sensing; radiography; arms control

Citation Formats

Gilbert, Andrew J., Miller, Brian W., Robinson, Sean M., White, Timothy A., Pitts, William Karl, Jarman, Kenneth D., and Seifert, Allen. A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.03.028.
Gilbert, Andrew J., Miller, Brian W., Robinson, Sean M., White, Timothy A., Pitts, William Karl, Jarman, Kenneth D., & Seifert, Allen. A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections. United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.03.028.
Gilbert, Andrew J., Miller, Brian W., Robinson, Sean M., White, Timothy A., Pitts, William Karl, Jarman, Kenneth D., and Seifert, Allen. 2017. "A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections". United States. doi:10.1016/j.nima.2017.03.028.
@article{osti_1349077,
title = {A single-pixel X-ray imager concept and its application to secure radiographic inspections},
author = {Gilbert, Andrew J. and Miller, Brian W. and Robinson, Sean M. and White, Timothy A. and Pitts, William Karl and Jarman, Kenneth D. and Seifert, Allen},
abstractNote = {Imaging technology is generally considered too invasive for arms control inspections due to the concern that it cannot properly secure sensitive features of the inspected item. But, this same sensitive information, which could include direct information on the form and function of the items under inspection, could be used for robust arms control inspections. The single-pixel X-ray imager (SPXI) is introduced as a method to make such inspections, capturing the salient spatial information of an object in a secure manner while never forming an actual image. We built this method on the theory of compressive sensing and the single pixel optical camera. The performance of the system is quantified using simulated inspections of simple objects. Measures of the robustness and security of the method are introduced and used to determine how robust and secure such an inspection would be. Particularly, it is found that an inspection with low noise (<1%) and high undersampling (>256×) exhibits high robustness and security.},
doi = {10.1016/j.nima.2017.03.028},
journal = {Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research. Section A, Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment},
number = C,
volume = 861,
place = {United States},
year = 2017,
month = 7
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2018
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  • Imaging technology is generally considered too invasive for arms control inspections due to the concern that it cannot properly secure sensitive features of the inspected item. However, this same sensitive information, which could include direct information on the form and function of the items under inspection, could be used for robust arms control inspections. The single-pixel X-ray imager (SPXI) is introduced as a method to make such inspections, capturing the salient spatial information of an object in a secure manner while never forming an actual image. The method is built on the theory of compressive sensing and the single pixelmore » optical camera. The performance of the system is quantified here using simulated inspections of simple objects. Measures of the robustness and security of the method are introduced and used to determine how such an inspection would be made which can maintain high robustness and security. In particular, it is found that an inspection with low noise (<1%) and high undersampling (>256×) exhibits high robustness and security.« less
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) are two main x-ray techniques in synchrotron radiation facilities. In this Note, we present an experimental setup capable of performing simultaneous XRD and XAS measurements by the application of a pixel-array area detector. For XRD, the momentum transfer in specular diffraction was measured by scanning the X-ray energy with fixed incoming and outgoing x-ray angles. By selecting a small fixed region of the detector to collect the XRD signal, the rest of the area was available for collecting the x-ray fluorescence for XAS measurements. The simultaneous measurement of XRD and X-ray absorptionmore » near edge structure for Pr{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} film was demonstrated as a proof of principle for future time-resolved pump-probe measurements. A static sample makes it easy to maintain an accurate overlap of the X-ray spot and laser pump beam.« less
  • Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) active pixel sensors can be optically coupled to CsI:Tl phosphors forming a indirect active pixel flat panel imager (APFPI) for high performance medical imaging. The aim of this work is to determine the x-ray imaging capabilities of CMOS-based APFPI and study the signal and noise transfer properties of CsI:Tl phosphors. Three different CsI:Tl phosphors from two different vendors have been used to produce three system configurations. The performance of each system configuration has been studied in terms of the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectra, and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) in the mammographic energy range. Amore » simple method to determine quantum limited systems in this energy range is also presented. In addition, with aid of monochromatic synchrotron radiation, the effect of iodine characteristic x-rays of the CsI:Tl on the MTF has been determined. A Monte Carlo simulation of the signal transfer properties of the imager is also presented in order to study the stages that degrade the spatial resolution of our current system. The effect of using substrate patterning during the growth of CsI:Tl columnar structure was also studied, along with the effect of CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise due to local variations in the scintillation light. CsI:Tl fixed pattern noise appears to limit the performance of our current system configurations. All the system configurations are quantum limited at 0.23 {mu}C/kg with two of them having DQE (0) equal to 0.57. Active pixel flat panel imagers are shown to be digital x-ray imagers with almost constant DQE throughout a significant part of their dynamic range and in particular at very low exposures.« less
  • Purpose: The breast cancer detection rate for digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is limited by the x-ray image quality. The limiting Nyquist frequency for current DBT systems is around 5 lp/mm, while the fine image details contained in the high spatial frequency region (>5 lp/mm) are lost. Also today the tomosynthesis patient dose is high (0.67–3.52 mGy). To address current issues, in this paper, for the first time, a high-resolution low-dose organic photodetector/amorphous In–Ga–Zn–O thin-film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) active pixel sensor (APS) x-ray imager is proposed for next generation DBT systems. Methods: The indirect x-ray detector is based on a combination of a novelmore » low-cost organic photodiode (OPD) and a cesium iodide-based (CsI:Tl) scintillator. The proposed APS x-ray imager overcomes the difficulty of weak signal detection, when small pixel size and low exposure conditions are used, by an on-pixel signal amplification with a significant charge gain. The electrical performance of a-IGZO TFT APS pixel circuit is investigated by SPICE simulation using modified Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) TFT model. Finally, the noise, detective quantum efficiency (DQE), and resolvability of the complete system are modeled using the cascaded system formalism. Results: The result demonstrates that a large charge gain of 31–122 is achieved for the proposed high-mobility (5–20 cm{sup 2}/V s) amorphous metal-oxide TFT APS. The charge gain is sufficient to eliminate the TFT thermal noise, flicker noise as well as the external readout circuit noise. Moreover, the low TFT (<10{sup −13} A) and OPD (<10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) leakage currents can further reduce the APS noise. Cascaded system analysis shows that the proposed APS imager with a 75 μm pixel pitch can effectively resolve the Nyquist frequency of 6.67 lp/mm, which can be further improved to ∼10 lp/mm if the pixel pitch is reduced to 50 μm. Moreover, the detector entrance exposure per projection can be reduced from 1 to 0.3 mR without a significant reduction of DQE. The signal-to-noise ratio of the a-IGZO APS imager under 0.3 mR x-ray exposure is comparable to that of a-Si:H passive pixel sensor imager under 1 mR, indicating good image quality under low dose. A threefold reduction of current tomosynthesis dose is expected if proposed technology is combined with an advanced DBT image reconstruction method. Conclusions: The proposed a-IGZO APS x-ray imager with a pixel pitch <75 μm is capable to achieve a high spatial frequency (>6.67 lp/mm) and a low dose (<0.4 mGy) in next generation DBT systems.« less