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Title: Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation

Abstract

Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaF aand RsaF b, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaF aand RsaF bare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaF aand RsaF bare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaF aand RsaF bled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaF aand RsaF bled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved inmore » protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaF aand RsaF bin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This phenomenon can conceivably also occur in natural systems. As one example of a system evolved to prevent intracellular protein accumulation, our study demonstrates thatCaulobacter crescentushas two homologous outer membrane transporter proteins that are involved in S-layer export. This is an interesting case study that demonstrates how bacteria can evolve redundancy to ensure adequate protein export functionality and maintain high cellular fitness. Moreover, we provide evidence that these two outer membrane proteins, although being the closestC. crescentushomologs to TolC inE. coli, do not process TolC functionality inC. crescentus.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
  2. Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
  3. Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC (Canada)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1349009
Report Number(s):
LLNL-JRNL-692607
Journal ID: ISSN 0099-2240
Grant/Contract Number:
AC52-07NA27344
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 82; Journal Issue: 23; Journal ID: ISSN 0099-2240
Publisher:
American Society for Microbiology
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGANISMS AND BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Overton, K. Wesley, Park, Dan M., Yung, Mimi C., Dohnalkova, Alice C., Smit, John, and Jiao, Yongqin. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation. United States: N. p., 2016. Web. doi:10.1128/AEM.02479-16.
Overton, K. Wesley, Park, Dan M., Yung, Mimi C., Dohnalkova, Alice C., Smit, John, & Jiao, Yongqin. Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation. United States. doi:10.1128/AEM.02479-16.
Overton, K. Wesley, Park, Dan M., Yung, Mimi C., Dohnalkova, Alice C., Smit, John, and Jiao, Yongqin. 2016. "Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation". United States. doi:10.1128/AEM.02479-16. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1349009.
@article{osti_1349009,
title = {Two Outer Membrane Proteins Contribute to Caulobacter crescentus Cellular Fitness by Preventing Intracellular S-Layer Protein Accumulation},
author = {Overton, K. Wesley and Park, Dan M. and Yung, Mimi C. and Dohnalkova, Alice C. and Smit, John and Jiao, Yongqin},
abstractNote = {Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaFaand RsaFb, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrug efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaFaand RsaFbare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaFaand RsaFbare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaFaand RsaFbled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaFaand RsaFbled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaFaand RsaFbin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This phenomenon can conceivably also occur in natural systems. As one example of a system evolved to prevent intracellular protein accumulation, our study demonstrates thatCaulobacter crescentushas two homologous outer membrane transporter proteins that are involved in S-layer export. This is an interesting case study that demonstrates how bacteria can evolve redundancy to ensure adequate protein export functionality and maintain high cellular fitness. Moreover, we provide evidence that these two outer membrane proteins, although being the closestC. crescentushomologs to TolC inE. coli, do not process TolC functionality inC. crescentus.},
doi = {10.1128/AEM.02479-16},
journal = {Applied and Environmental Microbiology},
number = 23,
volume = 82,
place = {United States},
year = 2016,
month = 9
}

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  • ABSTRACT Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.Caulobacter crescentusis unique in that it has two homologous, seemingly redundant outer membrane proteins, RsaF aand RsaF b, which together with other components form a type I protein translocation pathway for S-layer export. These proteins have homology toEscherichia coliTolC, the outer membrane channel of multidrugmore » efflux pumps. Here we provide evidence that, unlike TolC, RsaF aand RsaF bare not involved in either the maintenance of membrane stability or the active export of antimicrobial compounds. Rather, RsaF aand RsaF bare required to prevent intracellular accumulation and aggregation of the S-layer protein RsaA; deletion of RsaF aand RsaF bled to a general growth defect and lowered cellular fitness. Using Western blotting, transmission electron microscopy, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), we show that loss of both RsaF aand RsaF bled to accumulation of insoluble RsaA in the cytoplasm, which in turn caused upregulation of a number of genes involved in protein misfolding and degradation pathways. These findings provide new insight into the requirement for RsaF aand RsaF bin cellular fitness and tolerance to antimicrobial agents and further our understanding of the S-layer export mechanism on both the transcriptional and translational levels inC. crescentus. IMPORTANCEDecreased growth rate and reduced cell fitness are common side effects of protein production in overexpression systems. Inclusion bodies typically form inside the cell, largely due to a lack of sufficient export machinery to transport the overexpressed proteins to the extracellular environment. This phenomenon can conceivably also occur in natural systems. As one example of a system evolved to prevent intracellular protein accumulation, our study demonstrates thatCaulobacter crescentushas two homologous outer membrane transporter proteins that are involved in S-layer export. This is an interesting case study that demonstrates how bacteria can evolve redundancy to ensure adequate protein export functionality and maintain high cellular fitness. Moreover, we provide evidence that these two outer membrane proteins, although being the closestC. crescentushomologs to TolC inE. coli, do not process TolC functionality inC. crescentus.« less
  • Cultures of Caulobacter crescentus were found to grow on a variety of aromatic compounds. Degradation of benzoate, p-hydroxybenzoate, and phenol was found to occur via ..beta..-ketoadipate. The induction of degradative enzymes such as benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase, the ring cleavage enzyme catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, and cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme appeared similar to the control mechanism present in Pseudomonas spp. Both benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase had stringent specificities, as revealed by their action toward substituted benzoates and substituted catechols, respectively.
  • To investigate the function of the copper-zinc form of superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) (and its structural relationship to the eucaryotic CuZnSoDs) in the freshwater bacterium Caulobacter crecentus, the gene encoding CuZnSOD (sodC) of C. crescentus CB15 was cloned and sequenced. By hybridization to pulsed-field electrophoresis gels, sodC was mapped near cysE in the C. crescentus chromosome. Through analysis of spheroplasts, the two SODs of C. crescentus were shown to be differently localized, CuZnSOD in the periplasm and FeSOD in the cytoplasm. In its natural habitat, C. crescentus is frequently associated with blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). The oxygen evolved by these photosynthetic algaemore » may create an extracellular oxidative stress against which the periplasmic CuZnSOD may defend more effectively than the cytoplasmic FeSOD. Amino acid sequence alignments of C. crescentus CuZnSOD with eucaryotic CuZnSODs and with CuZnSOD of Photobacterium leiognathi (the only other bacterium from which CuZnSOD has been isolated and sequenced) suggest similar supersecondary structures for bacterial and eucaryotic CuZnSODs but reveal four novel substitutions in C. crescentus CuZnSOD: a phenylalanine critical to intrasubunit hydrophobic bonding replaced by alanine, a histidine ligand of zinc replaced by aspartate, and substitutions of two other previously invariant residues that stabilize zinc or both copper and zinc.« less
  • Bacteria adapt to shifts from rapid to slow growth, and have developed strategies for long-term survival during prolonged starvation and stress conditions. We report the regulatory response of C. crescentus to carbon starvation, based on combined high-throughput proteome and transcriptome analyses. Our results identify cell cycle changes in gene expression in response to carbon starvation that involve the prominent role of the FixK FNR/CAP family transcription factor and the CtrA cell cycle regulator. Notably, the SigT ECF sigma factor mediates the carbon starvation-induced degradation of CtrA, while activating a core set of general starvation-stress genes that respond to carbon starvation,more » osmotic stress, and exposure to heavy metals. Comparison of the response of swarmer cells and stalked cells to carbon starvation revealed four groups of genes that exhibit different expression profiles. Also, cell pole morphogenesis and initiation of chromosome replication normally occurring at the swarmer-to-stalked cell transition are uncoupled in carbon-starved cells.« less