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Title: Advanced Fiber-Optic Gyroscope for Measurement While Drilling in Harsh Downhole Environment

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), Fuel Cycle Technologies (NE-5)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
DOE Contract Number:
Type / Phase:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Moslehi, Behzad. Advanced Fiber-Optic Gyroscope for Measurement While Drilling in Harsh Downhole Environment. United States: N. p., 2017. Web.
Moslehi, Behzad. Advanced Fiber-Optic Gyroscope for Measurement While Drilling in Harsh Downhole Environment. United States.
Moslehi, Behzad. Sun . "Advanced Fiber-Optic Gyroscope for Measurement While Drilling in Harsh Downhole Environment". United States. doi:.
title = {Advanced Fiber-Optic Gyroscope for Measurement While Drilling in Harsh Downhole Environment},
author = {Moslehi, Behzad},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Mar 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sun Mar 26 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

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  • This report summarizes work to develop a novel distributed fiber-optic micro-sensor that is capable of detecting common fossil fuel gases in harsh environments. During the 32-month research and development (R&D) program, GE Global Research successfully synthesized sensing materials using two techniques: sol-gel based fiber surface coating and magnetron sputtering based fiber micro-sensor integration. Palladium nanocrystalline embedded silica matrix material (nc-Pd/Silica), nanocrystalline palladium oxides (nc-PdO{sub x}) and palladium alloy (nc-PdAuN{sub 1}), and nanocrystalline tungsten (nc-WO{sub x}) sensing materials were identified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to hydrogen; while the palladium doped and un-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide (nc-PdSnO{sub 2} and nc-SnO{submore » 2}) materials were verified to have high sensitivity and selectivity to carbon monoxide. The fiber micro-sensor comprises an apodized long-period grating in a single-mode fiber, and the fiber grating cladding surface was functionalized by above sensing materials with a typical thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers. GE found that the morphologies of such sensing nanomaterials are either nanoparticle film or nanoporous film with a typical size distribution from 5-10 nanometers. nc-PdO{sub x} and alloy sensing materials were found to be highly sensitive to hydrogen gas within the temperature range from ambient to 150 C, while nc-Pd/Silica and nc-WO{sub x} sensing materials were found to be suitable to be operated from 150 C to 500 C for hydrogen gas detection. The palladium doped and un-doped nc-SnO{sub 2} materials also demonstrated sensitivity to carbon monoxide gas at approximately 500 C. The prototyped fiber gas sensing system developed in this R&D program is based on wavelength-division-multiplexing technology in which each fiber sensor is identified according to its transmission spectra features within the guiding mode and cladding modes. The interaction between the sensing material and fossil fuel gas results in a refractive index change and optical absorption in the sensing layer. This induces mode coupling strength and boundary conditions changes and thereby shifts the central wavelengths of the guiding mode and cladding modes propagation. GE's experiments demonstrated that such an interaction between the fossil fuel gas and sensing material not only shifts the central wavelengths of the guide mode and cladding modes propagation, but also alters their power loss characteristics. The integrated fiber gas sensing system includes multiple fiber gas sensors, fiber Bragg grating-based temperature sensors, fiber optical interrogator, and signal processing software.« less
  • The need for a reliable, fast, wireless telemetry system in the drilling industry is great but the technical challenge to develop such a system is huge. A downhole wireless telemetry system based on Surface Area Modulation (SAM) has been developed which involves the introduction of an electrically insulated gap near the bottom of an otherwise conductive drillstring. The electrical resistance of this gap can be modulated to alter the electrical characteristics of a circuit involving a surface power supply, the sections of the drillstring above and below the gap, the earth, and a nearby return electrode. These changes alter themore » current in the circuit, which can be monitored at the surface with an ammeter. Downhole data are encoded and transmitted to the surface as a pattern of current oscillations. In a field test, the SAM system successfully transmitted downhole information from depths of 1,400 ft below the fluid level to the surface at a rate of 110 baud. Electrical insulation on the outside of the simulated drillstring was required to achieve this level of performance. Electrically insulated tubing improved the data transmission rate at a given depth by more than an order of magnitude, and increased the maximum depth from which successful data telemetry could be achieved by more than a factor of two.« less
  • This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GEmore » business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.« less