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Title: Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ; ; ; ; ; ;
  1. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
1348865
Grant/Contract Number:
AC02-98CH10886
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 35; Journal Issue: 2; Related Information: CHORUS Timestamp: 2018-02-14 18:29:44; Journal ID: ISSN 2166-2746
Publisher:
American Vacuum Society
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English

Citation Formats

Jablonka, Lukas, Kubart, Tomas, Primetzhofer, Daniel, Abedin, Ahmad, Hellström, Per-Erik, Östling, Mikael, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Lavoie, Christian, Zhang, Shi-Li, and Zhang, Zhen. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1116/1.4975152.
Jablonka, Lukas, Kubart, Tomas, Primetzhofer, Daniel, Abedin, Ahmad, Hellström, Per-Erik, Östling, Mikael, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Lavoie, Christian, Zhang, Shi-Li, & Zhang, Zhen. Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm. United States. doi:10.1116/1.4975152.
Jablonka, Lukas, Kubart, Tomas, Primetzhofer, Daniel, Abedin, Ahmad, Hellström, Per-Erik, Östling, Mikael, Jordan-Sweet, Jean, Lavoie, Christian, Zhang, Shi-Li, and Zhang, Zhen. Wed . "Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm". United States. doi:10.1116/1.4975152.
@article{osti_1348865,
title = {Formation of nickel germanides from Ni layers with thickness below 10 nm},
author = {Jablonka, Lukas and Kubart, Tomas and Primetzhofer, Daniel and Abedin, Ahmad and Hellström, Per-Erik and Östling, Mikael and Jordan-Sweet, Jean and Lavoie, Christian and Zhang, Shi-Li and Zhang, Zhen},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {10.1116/1.4975152},
journal = {Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. B, Nanotechnology and Microelectronics},
number = 2,
volume = 35,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Mar 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
Free Publicly Available Full Text
Publisher's Version of Record at 10.1116/1.4975152

Citation Metrics:
Cited by: 1work
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  • The authors have studied the reaction between a Ge (100) substrate and thin layers of Ni ranging from 2 to 10 nm in thickness. The formation of metal-rich Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 was found to precede that of the monogermanide NiGe by means of real-time in situ x-ray diffraction during ramp-annealing and ex situ x-ray pole figure analyses for phase identification. The observed sequential growth of Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 and NiGe with such thin Ni layers is different from the previously reported simultaneous growth with thicker Ni layers. The phase transformation from Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3 to NiGe was found to be nucleation-controlled for Ni thicknesses <5 nm<5more » nm, which is well supported by thermodynamic considerations. Specifically, the temperature for the NiGe formation increased with decreasing Ni (rather Ni5Ge3Ni5Ge3) thickness below 5 nm. In combination with sheet resistance measurement and microscopic surface inspection of samples annealed with a standard rapid thermal processing, the temperature range for achieving morphologically stable NiGe layers was identified for this standard annealing process. As expected, it was found to be strongly dependent on the initial Ni thickness« less
  • The Ho–Ni–Ge system has been investigated at 1070 K and up to ~60 at% Ho by X-ray diffraction and microprobe analyses. Besides the eight known compounds, HoNi{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} (YNi{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), HoNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (CeAl{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 2}NiGe{sub 6} (Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}-type), HoNiGe{sub 3} (SmNiGe{sub 3}-type), HoNi{sub 0.2÷0.6}Ge{sub 2} (CeNiSi{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 37÷34}Ni{sub 6÷24}Ge{sub 57÷42} (AlB{sub 2}-type), HoNiGe (TiNiSi-type), Ho{sub 3}NiGe{sub 2} (La{sub 3}NiGe{sub 2}-type), the ternary system contains four new compounds: Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (Sc{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}-type), HoNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (ErNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type) and ~Ho{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Ge{submore » 3} (unknown structure). Quasi-binary solid solutions were observed at 1070 K for Ho{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, HoNi{sub 5}, HoNi{sub 7}, HoNi{sub 3}, HoNi{sub 2}, HoNi and Ho{sub 2}Ge{sub 3}, but no detectable solubility was found for the other binary compounds in the Ho–Ni–Ge system. Based on the magnetization measurements, the HoNi{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, HoNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} and Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (and isostructural (Tb, Dy){sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}) compounds have been found to show paramagnetic behavior down to 5 K, whereas Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} exhibits an antiferromagnetic transition at ~7 K. Additionally, the crystal structure of the new isostructural phases (Y, Yb)Ni{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (ErNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (Sc{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}-type) and (Y, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm){sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type) has been also investigated. - Graphical abstract: The Ho–Ni–Ge system has been investigated at 1070 K and up to ~60 at.% Ho by X-ray and microprobe analyses. Besides the eight known compounds, i.e. HoNi{sub 5}Ge{sub 3} (YNi{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), HoNi{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} (CeAl{sub 2}Ga{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 2}NiGe{sub 6} (Ce{sub 2}CuGe{sub 6}-type), HoNiGe{sub 3} (SmNiGe{sub 3}-type), HoNi{sub 0.2÷0.6}Ge{sub 2} (CeNiSi{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 37÷34}Ni{sub 6÷24}Ge{sub 57÷42} (AlB{sub 2}-type), HoNiGe (TiNiSi-type), Ho{sub 3}NiGe{sub 2} (La{sub 3}NiGe{sub 2}-type), the ternary system contains four new compounds: Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (Sc{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}-type), HoNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (ErNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}-type), Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type) and ~Ho{sub 5}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (unknown structure). Quasi-binary solid solutions were found to form at 1070 K from the binary Ho{sub 2}Ni{sub 17}, HoNi{sub 5}, HoNi{sub 7}, HoNi{sub 3}, HoNi{sub 2}, HoNi and Ho{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} compounds, while no detectable solubility was observed for the other binary compounds in the Ho–Ni–Ge system. Based on the magnetization measurements, the HoNi{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, HoNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} and Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (and isostructural (Tb, Dy){sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}) compounds have been found to show paramagnetic behavior down to 5 K, whereas Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} exhibits an antiferromagnetic transition at ~7 K. Additionally, the crystal structure of the new isostructural phases (Y, Yb)Ni{sub 3}Ge{sub 2} (ErNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2}-type), Er{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} (Sc{sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4}-type) and (Y, Tb, Dy, Er, Tm){sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} (Hf{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 3}-type) has been also investigated. - Highlights: • Ho–Ni–Ge system has been investigated at 1070 K and up to ~60 at% Ho. • Eight known ternary holmium nickel germanides were confirmed in Ho–Ni–Ge. • Four new holmium nickel germanides were detected in Ho–Ni–Ge. • Eight new rare earth nickel germanides were detected in (Y, Tb, Dy, Er–Yb)–Ni–Ge. • HoNi{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}, HoNi{sub 3}Ge{sub 2},(Tb, Dy, Ho){sub 3}Ni{sub 11}Ge{sub 4} and Ho{sub 3}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 3} are paramagnet down to 5–7 K.« less
  • We studied the solid-phase reaction between a thin Ni film and a single crystal Ge(001) or Ge(111) substrate during a ramp anneal. The phase formation sequence was determined using in situ X-ray diffraction and in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), while the nature and the texture of the phases were studied using X-ray pole figures and transmission electron microscopy. The phase sequence is characterized by the formation of a single transient phase before NiGe forms as the final and stable phase. X-ray pole figures were used to unambiguously identify the transient phase as the ϵ-phase, a non-stoichiometric Ni-rich germanide withmore » a hexagonal crystal structure that can exist for Ge concentrations between 34% and 48% and which forms with a different epitaxial texture on both substrate orientations. The complementary information gained from both RBS and X-ray pole figure measurements revealed a simultaneous growth of both the ϵ-phase and NiGe over a small temperature window on both substrate orientations.« less
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