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Title: Surface Characterization of Populus during Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Growth by TOF-SIMS Analysis

Abstract

Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium that is capable of utilizing unpretreated biomass in addition to breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars. Despite the fact that C. bescii must first bind to the surface of the biomass, there has been no analysis of the morphological or chemical changes to the biomass surface as a result of incubation with the micro-organism. To understand more about C. bescii growth, juvenile poplar stems were sectioned (80 μm thick) and incubated with C. bescii beyond the typical 24 h experiment length. Monitoring the cell counts during incubation revealed a biphasic growth pattern. The impact the micro-organism had on the surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), which showed physical crevices in the cell wall caused by the C. bescii along with a decrease of polysaccharide ions and an increase in lignin ions on the poplar surface. Employing infrared microspectroscopy, the decreasing trend was corroborated.

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [2];  [3];  [2];  [4]
  1. Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  2. Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  3. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
  4. Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Science (SC)
OSTI Identifier:
1348339
Grant/Contract Number:
AC05-00OR22725
Resource Type:
Journal Article: Accepted Manuscript
Journal Name:
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 5; Journal Issue: 3; Journal ID: ISSN 2168-0485
Publisher:
American Chemical Society (ACS)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES

Citation Formats

Tolbert, Allison K., Young, Jenna M., Jung, Seokwon, Chung, Daehwan, Passian, Ali, Westpheling, Janet, and Ragauskus, Arthur J. Surface Characterization of Populus during Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Growth by TOF-SIMS Analysis. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01877.
Tolbert, Allison K., Young, Jenna M., Jung, Seokwon, Chung, Daehwan, Passian, Ali, Westpheling, Janet, & Ragauskus, Arthur J. Surface Characterization of Populus during Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Growth by TOF-SIMS Analysis. United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01877.
Tolbert, Allison K., Young, Jenna M., Jung, Seokwon, Chung, Daehwan, Passian, Ali, Westpheling, Janet, and Ragauskus, Arthur J. Mon . "Surface Characterization of Populus during Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Growth by TOF-SIMS Analysis". United States. doi:10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01877. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/1348339.
@article{osti_1348339,
title = {Surface Characterization of Populus during Caldicellulosiruptor bescii Growth by TOF-SIMS Analysis},
author = {Tolbert, Allison K. and Young, Jenna M. and Jung, Seokwon and Chung, Daehwan and Passian, Ali and Westpheling, Janet and Ragauskus, Arthur J.},
abstractNote = {Caldicellulosiruptor bescii is a thermophilic, anaerobic bacterium that is capable of utilizing unpretreated biomass in addition to breaking down cellulose and hemicellulose into simple sugars. Despite the fact that C. bescii must first bind to the surface of the biomass, there has been no analysis of the morphological or chemical changes to the biomass surface as a result of incubation with the micro-organism. To understand more about C. bescii growth, juvenile poplar stems were sectioned (80 μm thick) and incubated with C. bescii beyond the typical 24 h experiment length. Monitoring the cell counts during incubation revealed a biphasic growth pattern. The impact the micro-organism had on the surface was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), which showed physical crevices in the cell wall caused by the C. bescii along with a decrease of polysaccharide ions and an increase in lignin ions on the poplar surface. Employing infrared microspectroscopy, the decreasing trend was corroborated.},
doi = {10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b01877},
journal = {ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering},
number = 3,
volume = 5,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Mon Jan 30 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}

Journal Article:
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  • Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP), which merges enzyme production, biomass hydrolysis, and fermentation into a single step, has the potential to become an efficient and economic strategy for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to transportation fuels or chemicals. In this study, we evaluated Clostridium thermocellum, Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, and Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis, three , thermophilic,cellulolytic, mixed-acid fermenting candidate CBP microorganisms, for their fermentation capabilities using dilute acid pretreated Populus as a model biomass feedstock. Under pH controlled, anaerobic fermentation conditions, each candidate successfully digested a minimum of 75% of the cellulose from dilute acid pretreated Populus, as indicated by an increase in planktonic cellsmore » and end-product metabolites and a concurrent decrease in glucan content. C. thermocellum, which employs a cellulosomal approach to biomass degradation, required 120 hours to achieve 75% cellulose utilization. In contrast, the non-cellulosomal, secreted hydrolytic enzyme system of the Caldicellulosiruptor sp. required 300 hours to achieve similar results. End-point fermentation conversions for C. thermocellum, C. bescii, and C. obsidiansis were determined to be 0.29, 0.34, and 0.38 grams of total metabolites per gram of loaded glucan, respectively. This data provide a starting point for future strain engineering efforts that can serve to improve the biomass fermentation capabilities of these three promising candidate CBP platforms.« less
  • The ability to deconstruct plant biomass without conventional pretreatment has made members of the genus Caldicellulosiruptor the target of investigation for the consolidated processing of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and bioproducts. These Gram-positive bacteria are hyperthermophilic anaerobes and the most thermophilic cellulolytic organisms so far described. They use both C5 and C6 sugars simultaneously and have the ability to grow well on xylan, a major component of plant cell walls. This is an important advantage for their use to efficiently convert biomass at yields sufficient for an industrial process. For commodity chemicals, yield from substrate is perhaps the most importantmore » economic factor. In an attempt to improve even further the ability of C. bescii to use xylan, we introduced two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus. Acel_0180 includes tandem carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM2 and CBM3) located at the C-terminus, one of which, CBM2, is not present in C. bescii. Also, the sequences of Xyn10A and Acel_0180 have very little homology with the GH10 domains present in C. bescii. For these reasons, we selected these xylanases as potential candidates for synergistic interaction with those in the C. bescii exoproteome. As a result, heterologous expression of two xylanases from Acidothermus cellulolyticus in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii resulted in a modest, but significant increase in the activity of the exoproteome of C. bescii on xylan substrates. Even though the increase in extracellular activity was modest, the ability of C. bescii to grow on these substrates was dramatically improved suggesting that the xylan substrate/microbe interaction substantially increased deconstruction over the secreted free enzymes alone. In conclusion, we anticipate that the ability to efficiently use xylan, a major component of plant cell walls for conversion of plant biomass to products of interest, will allow the conversion of renewable, sustainable, and inexpensive plant feedstocks to products at high yields.« less
  • Here, CelA is the most abundant enzyme secreted by Caldicellulosiruptor bescii and has been shown to outperform mixtures of commercially available exo- and endoglucanases in vitro. CelA contains both a glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase and a glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanase known to be synergistic in their activity, connected by three cellulose-binding domains via linker peptides. Here, repeated aspartate residues were introduced into the N-terminal ends of CelA GH9 and GH48 domains to improve secretion efficiency and/or catalytic efficiency of CelA. Among several constructs, the highest activity on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), 0.81 ± 0.03 mg/mL was observed for the C.more » bescii strain containing CelA with 5-aspartate tag at the N-terminal end of GH9 domain – an 82% increase over wild type CelA. In addition, Expression of CelA with N-terminal repeated aspartate residues in C. bescii results in a dramatic increase in its ability to grow on Avicel.« less